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3-D Structure of multilaminar lysosomes in antigen presenting cells reveals trapping of MHC II on the internal membranes.
In late endosomes and lysosomes of antigen presenting cells major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules bind peptides from degraded internalized pathogens. These compartments are called MHC class II compartments (MIICs), and from here peptide-loaded MHC II is transported to the cell surface for presentation to helper T-lymphocytes to generate an immune response. Recent studies from our group in mouse dendritic cells indicate that the MHC class II on internal vesicles of multivesicular late endosomes or multivesicular bodies is the main source of MHC II at the plasma membrane. We showed that dendritic cell activation triggers a back fusion mechanism whereby MHC II from the inner membranes is delivered to the multivesicular bodies' outer membrane. Another type of MIIC in B-lymphocytes and dendritic cells is more related to lysosomes and often appears as a multilaminar organelle with abundant MHC II-enriched internal membrane sheets. These multilaminar lysosomes have a functioning peptide-loading machinery, but to date it is not clear whether peptide-loaded MHC II molecules from the internal membranes can make their way to the cell surface and contribute to T cell activation. To obtain detailed information on the membrane organization of multilaminar lysosomes and investigate possible escape routes from the lumen of this organelle, we performed electron tomography on cryo-immobilized B-lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Our high-resolution 3-D reconstructions of multilaminar lysosomes indicate that their membranes are organized in such a way that MHC class II may be trapped on the inner membranes, without the possibility to escape to the cell surface.
Antigen-Presenting Cells/metabolism, Antigen-Presenting Cells/ultrastructure, Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology, Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/metabolism, Humans, Intracellular Membranes/immunology, Intracellular Membranes/metabolism, Lysosomes/metabolism, Lysosomes/ultrastructure, Microscopy, Electron, Ribosomal Proteins/metabolism
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