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Is amoxicillin/clavulanic acid sufficient for preemptive antibiotic therapy in type III grade open fractures ?
Title of the conference
71e Congrès Annuel de la Société Suisse d'Orthopédie et de Traumatologie (SSOT)
Lausanne, Suisse 22-24 juin 2011
Swiss Medical Weekly
The risk of infection after type III° open fractures is high (10-50%).Preemptive antibiotic therapy may prevent posttraumatic infection andimprove the outcome. Recommendations about the type and durationof antibiotic vary among the institutions and it remains unclear whethergram-negative bacilli or anaerobs need to be covered. In Europe, themost commonly recommended antibiotic is amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.We retrospectively analyzed microbiology, characteristics and outcomeof patients with open type III° fractures treated at our institution.Methods: Between 01/2005 and 12/2009 we retrospectively includedall type III grade open fractures of the leg at our institution classifiedafter Gustilo into type IIIA, IIIB and IIIC. Demographic characteristics,clinical presentation, microbiology, surgical and antibiotic treatmentand patient outcome were recorded using a standardized case-reportform.Results: 30 cases of patients with type III° open fractures wereincluded (25 males, mean age was 40.5 years, range 17-67 years).27 fractures (90%) were located on the lower leg and 3 (10%) on theupper leg. Microbiology at initial surgery was available for 19 cases(63%), of which 10 grew at least one organism (including 8 amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant gram-negative bacilli [GNB], 7 amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant Bacillus cereus), 11 were culture-negative.Preemptive antibiotics were given in all cases (100%) for an averageduration of 8.5 days (range 1-53 days), the most common antibioticwas amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in 60% (n = 18). 11 cases just receivedpreemptive antibiotic treatment, in 19 of 30 cases the antibiotic therapywas changed and prolonged. Microbiology at revision surgery wasavailable for 25 cases and 22 grew at least one pathogen (including32 amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant gram-negative bacilli and 10amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant Bacillus cereus), 3 were culturenegative.Conclusions: At initial surgery, most common isolated organismswere coagulase-negative staphylococci (43%), Bacillus cereus (23%),and gram-negative bacilli (27%), and others (7%) of which 48% wereresistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. At revision surgery, isolatedorganisms were gram-negative bacilli (64%), Bacillus cereus (20%),and others (16%) of which 88% were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanicacid. The spectrum of amoxicillin/clavulanic does not cover the mostcommon isolated organisms.FM32
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