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Clustering of risk behaviors with cigarette consumption: a population-based survey.
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed clustering of multiple risk behaviors (i.e., low leisure-time physical activity, low fruits/vegetables intake, and high alcohol consumption) with level of cigarette consumption. METHODS: Data from the 2002 Swiss Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey assessing health and self-reported risk behaviors, were used. 18,005 subjects (8052 men and 9953 women) aged 25 years old or more participated. RESULTS: Smokers more frequently had low leisure time physical activity, low fruits/vegetables intake, and high alcohol consumption than non- and ex-smokers. Frequency of each risk behavior increased steadily with cigarette consumption. Clustering of risk behaviors increased with cigarette consumption in both men and women. For men, the odds ratios of multiple (> or =2) risk behaviors other than smoking, adjusted for age, nationality, and educational level, were 1.14 (95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.33) for ex-smokers, 1.24 (0.93, 1.64) for light smokers (1-9 cigarettes/day), 1.72 (1.36, 2.17) for moderate smokers (10-19 cigarettes/day), and 3.07 (2.59, 3.64) for heavy smokers (> or =20 cigarettes/day) versus non-smokers. Similar odds ratios were found for women for corresponding groups, i.e., 1.01 (0.86, 1.19), 1.26 (1.00, 1.58), 1.62 (1.33, 1.98), and 2.75 (2.30, 3.29). CONCLUSIONS: Counseling and intervention with smokers should take into account the strong clustering of risk behaviors with level of cigarette consumption.
Adult, Age Distribution, Aged, Alcohol Drinking, Cluster Analysis, Data Collection, Diet, Educational Status, Female, Humans, Leisure Activities, Male, Middle Aged, Population Surveillance, Risk-Taking, Sex Distribution, Smoking, Switzerland
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