Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Insulin and NPY pathways and the control of GnRH function and puberty onset.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ; ReviewPublication Status: ppublish
Energy balance exerts a critical influence on reproductive function. Leptin and insulin are among the metabolic factors signaling the nutritional status of an individual to the hypothalamus, and their role in the overall modulation of the activity of GnRH neurons is increasingly recognized. As such, they participate to a more generalized phenomenon: the signaling of peripheral metabolic changes to the central nervous system. The physiological importance that the interactions occurring between peripheral metabolic factors and the central nervous system bear for the control of food intake is increasingly recognized. The central mechanisms implicated are the focus of attention of very many research groups worldwide. We review here the experimental data that suggest that similar mechanisms are at play for the metabolic control of the neuroendocrine reproductive function. It is appearing that metabolic signals are integrated at the levels of first-order neurons equipped with the proper receptors, ant that these neurons send their signals towards hypothalamic GnRH neurons which constitute the integrative element of this network.
Animals, Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism, Humans, Insulin/metabolism, Leptin/metabolism, Neuropeptide Y/metabolism, Puberty/metabolism, Sexual Maturation/physiology, Signal Transduction
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