Article: article from journal or magazin.
Involvement of microglia-neuron interactions in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha release, microglial activation, and neurodegeneration induced by trimethyltin.
Journal of neuroscience research
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't - Publication Status: ppublish
Trimethyltin (TMT) is a neurotoxicant known to induce early microglial activation. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role played by these microglial cells in the TMT-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of TMT were investigated in monolayer cultures of isolated microglia or in neuron-enriched cultures and in neuron-microglia and astrocyte-microglia cocultures. The end points used were morphological criteria; evaluation of cell death and cell proliferation; and measurements of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO) release in culture supernatant. The results showed that, in cultures of microglia, TMT (10(-6) M) caused, after a 5-day treatment, an increased release of TNF-alpha, without affecting microglial shape or cell viability. When microglia were cocultured with astrocytes, TNF-alpha release was decreased to undetectable levels. In contrast, in neuron-microglia cocultures, TNF-alpha levels were found to increase at lower concentrations of TMT (i.e., 10(-8) M). Moreover, at 10(-6) M of TMT, microglia displayed further morphological activation, as suggested by process retraction and by decrease in cell size. No morphological activation was observed in cultures of isolated microglial cells and in astrocyte-microglia cocultures. With regard to neurons, 10(-6) M of TMT induced about 30% of cell death, when applied to neuron-enriched cultures, whereas close to 100% of neuronal death was observed in neuron-microglia cocultures. In conclusion, whereas astrocytes may rather dampen the microglial activation by decreasing microglial TNF-alpha production, neuronal-microglial interactions lead to enhanced microglial activation. This microglial activation, in turn, exacerbates the neurotoxic effects of TMT. TNF-alpha may play a major role in such cell-cell communications.
Animals, Cell Communication, Cells, Cultured, Microglia, Nerve Degeneration, Neurons, Rats, Trimethyltin Compounds, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Web of science
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