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Energy cost of glucose storage in human subjects during glucose-insulin infusions.
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
The effect of graded levels of hyperinsulinemia on energy expenditure, while euglycemia was maintained by glucose infusion, was examined in 22 healthy young male volunteers by using the euglycemic insulin clamp technique in combination with indirect calorimetry. Insulin was infused at five rates to achieve steady-state hyperinsulinemic plateaus of 62 +/- 4, 103 +/- 5, 170 +/- 10, 423 +/- 16, and 1,132 +/- 47 microU/ml. Total body glucose uptake during each of the five insulin clamp studies was 0.41, 0.50, 0.66, 0.74, and 0.77 g/min, respectively. Glucose storage (calculated from the difference between total body glucose uptake minus total glucose oxidation) was 0.25, 0.29, 0.43, 0.49, and 0.52 g/min for each group, respectively, and represented over 60-70% of total glucose uptake. The net increment in energy expenditure after intravenous glucose was 0.08, 0.10, 0.14, 0.17, and 0.23 kcal/min, respectively. Throughout the physiological and supraphysiological range of insulinemia, there was a significant relationship (r = 0.95, P less than 0.001) between the increment in energy expenditure and glucose storage, indicating an energy cost of 0.45 kcal/g glucose stored. However, at each level of hyperinsulinemia, the theoretical value for the energy cost of glucose storage (assuming that all of the glucose is stored in the form of glycogen) could account for only 45-63% of the actual increase in energy expenditure that was measured by indirect calorimetry. These results indicate that factors in addition to glucose storage as glycogen must be responsible for the increase in energy expenditure that accompanies glucose infusion.
Adult, Blood Glucose/metabolism, Calorimetry, Energy Metabolism, Glucose/administration & dosage, Glucose/metabolism, Humans, Infusions, Parenteral, Insulin/administration & dosage, Insulin/diagnostic use, Kinetics, Male
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