Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Toxic cardenolides: chemical ecology and coevolution of specialized plant-herbivore interactions.
CONTENTS: Summary 28 I. Historic background and introduction 29 II. Diversity of cardenolide forms 29 III. Biosynthesis 30 IV. Cardenolide variation among plant parts 31 V. Phylogenetic distribution of cardenolides 32 VI. Geographic distribution of cardenolides 34 VII. Ecological genetics of cardenolide production 34 VIII. Environmental regulation of cardenolide production 34 IX. Biotic induction of cardenolides 36 X. Mode of action and toxicity of cardenolides 38 XI. Direct and indirect effects of cardenolides on specialist and generalist insect herbivores 39 XII. Cardenolides and insect oviposition 39 XIII. Target site insensitivity 40 XIV. Alternative mechanisms of cardenolide resistance 40 XV. Cardenolide sequestration 41 Acknowledgements 42 References 42 SUMMARY: Cardenolides are remarkable steroidal toxins that have become model systems, critical in the development of theories for chemical ecology and coevolution. Because cardenolides inhibit the ubiquitous and essential animal enzyme Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, most insects that feed on cardenolide-containing plants are highly specialized. With a huge diversity of chemical forms, these secondary metabolites are sporadically distributed across 12 botanical families, but dominate the Apocynaceae where they are found in > 30 genera. Studies over the past decade have demonstrated patterns in the distribution of cardenolides among plant organs, including all tissue types, and across broad geographic gradients within and across species. Cardenolide production has a genetic basis and is subject to natural selection by herbivores. In addition, there is strong evidence for phenotypic plasticity, with the biotic and abiotic environment predictably impacting cardenolide production. Mounting evidence indicates a high degree of specificity in herbivore-induced cardenolides in Asclepias. While herbivores of cardenolide-containing plants often sequester the toxins, are aposematic, and possess several physiological adaptations (including target site insensitivity), there is strong evidence that these specialists are nonetheless negatively impacted by cardenolides. While reviewing both the mechanisms and evolutionary ecology of cardenolide-mediated interactions, we advance novel hypotheses and suggest directions for future work.
Apocynaceae, cardiac glycosides, Digitalis, induced plant defense, insect specialization, milkweed (Asclepias), sequestration, sodium-potassium pump (Na, K plus -ATPase)
Web of science
Last modification date