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Regulation of inflammasome activity.
Summary Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a potent inflammatory cytokine, which is implicated in acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. The activity of IL-1beta is regulated by the proteolytic cleavage of its inactive precursor resulting in the mature, bioactive form of the cytokine. Cleavage of the IL-1beta precursor is performed by the cysteine protease caspase-1, which is activated within protein complexes termed 'inflammasomes'. To date, four distinct inflammasomes have been described, based on different core receptors capable of initiating complex formation. Both the host and invading pathogens need to control IL-1beta production and this can be achieved by regulating inflammasome activity. However, we have, as yet, little understanding of the mechanisms of this regulation. In particular the negative feedbacks, which are critical for the host to limit collateral damage of the inflammatory response, remain largely unexplored. Recent exciting findings in this field have given us an insight into the potential of this research area in terms of opening up new therapeutic avenues for inflammatory disorders.
Inflammasomes, Interleukin-1 Beta, Regulators, Interleukin-1-Beta Converting-Enzyme, Familial Mediterranean Fever, Proteinase-Inhibitor 9, Gamma-Inducing Factor, Muckle-Wells-Syndrome, NF-Kappa-B, Caspase-1 Activation, NLRP3 Inflammasome, NALP3 Inflammasome, Autoinflammatory Disorder
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