Article: article from journal or magazin.
Cartilage injury by ramp compression near the gel diffusion rate.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research
Publication types: In Vitro ; Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Publication Status: ppublish
The mechanics of cartilage injuries have implications for repair strategies. We examined the role of strain rate in cartilage injury under compression near the "gel diffusion" rate (the inherent tissue mechanical relaxation rate). Bovine osteochondral explant disks were subjected to one radially unconfined axial compression at approximately 0.1, 1, 10, 100, or 1000 times the gel diffusion rate to a peak stress of 3.5, 7, or 14 MPa. Effects were monitored in terms of axial strain, changes in water content, superficial cracks, chondrocyte viability, and proteoglycan release. Injury worsened monotonically with peak stress, but varied substantially with strain rate. High strain rates resulted in significant matrix fluid pressurization and impact-like surface cracking with cell death near the superficial zone. Below the gel diffusion rate, cells died throughout the tissue depth during extensive matrix consolidation without cracks. At approximately the gel diffusion rate, no measurable injury occurred, even for peak stresses of 14 MPa and axial compressive strains near 0.8. The gel diffusion rate therefore represented a threshold separating different biomechanical regimes of injury, but at which cartilage was relatively "safe" from injury. Findings may help identify strategies for prevention and treatment of cartilage injury and suggest loading guidelines for tissue engineering.
Animals, Cartilage/injuries, Cartilage/physiopathology, Cattle, Compressive Strength, Diffusion, Extracellular Matrix/physiology, Gels, Sprains and Strains/physiopathology, Weight-Bearing
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