Article: a PhD thesis.
Immune response mechanisms and protection against "Plasmodium falciparum" and "Plasmodium berghei"
Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Faculté de biologie et de médecineUniversité de LausanneUNIL - BugnonRue du Bugnon 21 - bureau 4111CH-1015 LausanneSUISSE
Number of pages
Malaria is one of the most important tropical and infectious diseases causing many deaths and enormous social and economic consequences, particularly in the developing countries. Despite of widely use of anti-malaria drugs and insecticide, the development of successful vaccines constitutes one of the main strategies to control malaria transmission. Several proteins expressed from blood stage such as merozoite surface proteins (MSP] or liver stage as circumsporozoite protein (CSP) are shown to be the targets of immune responses in humans and in animals. Thus, several studies have illustrated that natural infection and laboratory immunizations of humans and animals with Plasmodium sporozoite (SPZ) and its derivate-proteins (peptides) can elicit protection and control of parasite infection. However, a clear understanding of immune response against defined Plasmodium proteins should be the prerequisite conditions before any development of appropriate vaccines. In this order, our study focused on the immune responses to MSP2 (dimorphic and C-terminal fragments) in human and mice; and the mechanisms by which mouse infected hepatocytes present Plasmodium antigens to CD8+ T-cells to induce protective immunity in mice.¦The first part of this work shows that infected hepatocytes can present Plasmodium antigens to PbCSP-specific CD8+ T-cells and induce a protective immunity in mice. Here, this was addressed in vivo and showed that the infected hepatocytes were able of stimulating of primed-and naive-CD8+ T-cell clones and induced fully protective immunity against SPZ challenge. The role of infected hepatocytes in antigen presentation was illustrated here by their graft into immuno-deficient mice and depletion of cosspresenting dentritic cells (DCs) that are known to have key role in the activation of CD8+ T-cells during the liver cycle stage of Plasmodium.¦The second part of this project concerned the fine specificity of Ab responses regarding D and C regions of the two allelic families of MSP2 (3D7 and FC27). Covering of the two regions by overlapping-20 mers led to delineate the epitopes in the different endemic areas and different age groups of donors. The major epitopes characterizing D or C regions were conserved in different endemic areas (P12/P13 and P15/P16 for the 3D7-D, P23/24 and P25/26 for the FC27-D; P29/P30 for the C region). This offers thus, the possibility of a multi-epitope vaccine design including the major epitopes from the two domains of the two allelic MSP2 families. On the other, the 20 mers, particularly some major epitopes of the 3D7-Dregion (P12, P13 and P16) belonged to the epitopes that presented a high probability to be associated with protection in the children group [1 to 5 year-old). In addition, D and C LSP purified Abs (pAbs) recognized merozoite derived polypeptides and native proteins. A crossreactivity activity of homologous pAbs against the heterologous was also illustrated between the two allelic MSP2 parasites. Finally, the functional analysis of D regions pAbs showed an inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth suggesting the functional biological activity of the D region pAbs in the control of malaria.¦The last part of this project aimed the evaluation of the immunogenicity of the D and C region LSPs of the two allelic MSP2 families in the presence of adjuvants for the possible use in clinical trial study in humans. The MSP2 LSP mixture showed that D and C were immunogenic and defined limited epitopes (whose intensity of immune responses) depending on the adjuvants and mouse strain for the D regions. The major epitopes characterizing the C region were usually conserved in different strains of mouse and adjuvants used. Furthermore, the single region (either with D or C) immunization of mice confirmed the immunogenicity and the presence of their limited epitopes. We concluded that the possibility to finely delineate in animals the immune responses to antigens might help to select optimal antigen/adjuvant combinations to be tested later in clinical trials. Thus, formulation of glucopyranosyl-lipid A stable emulsion, GLA-SE (toll like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist) and its different combination (CpG: TLR9 agonist and GDQ: LR7 agonist) with MSP2 LSP was better than with alum, montanide ISA 720 (Mt) and virosome. Immunization of mice with allelic LSP did not show a crossreactivity between the two allelic MSP2 parasites unlike as humans, suggesting that the crossreactivity could be acquired during natural infection of the population who are usually exposed to both allelic parasite forms (3D7 and FC27).¦Nevertheless, similar epitope of D (P12, P13 and P25) and C (P29) regions have been found both in mice and human. This offers an opportunity to compare their epitopes in naïve immunized donors with LSPs and naturally infected populations in the endemic areas.
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