Article: article from journal or magazin.
Respiratory muscle dynamics and control during exercise with externally imposed expiratory flow limitation.
Journal of Applied Physiology
To determine how decreasing velocity of shortening (U) of expiratory muscles affects breathing during exercise, six normal men performed incremental exercise with externally imposed expiratory flow limitation (EFLe) at approximately 1 l/s. We measured volumes of chest wall, lung- and diaphragm-apposed rib cage (Vrc,p and Vrc,a, respectively), and abdomen (Vab) by optoelectronic plethysmography; esophageal, gastric, and transdiaphragmatic pressures (Pdi); and end-tidal CO2 concentration. From these, we calculated velocity of shortening and power (W) of diaphragm, rib cage, and abdominal muscles (di, rcm, ab, respectively). EFLe forced a decrease in Uab, which increased Pab and which lasted well into inspiration. This imposed a load, overcome by preinspiratory diaphragm contraction. Udi and inspiratory Urcm increased, reducing their ability to generate pressure. Pdi, Prcm, and Wab increased, indicating an increased central drive to all muscle groups secondary to hypercapnia, which developed in all subjects. These results suggest a vicious cycle in which EFLe decreases Uab, increasing Pab and exacerbating the hypercapnia, which increases central drive increasing Pab even more, leading to further CO2 retention, and so forth.
Abdominal Muscles/physiology, Adult, Carbon Dioxide/analysis, Carbon Dioxide/physiology, Diaphragm/physiology, Dyspnea/complications, Dyspnea/physiopathology, Exercise Test, Humans, Hypercapnia/etiology, Hypercapnia/physiopathology, Intercostal Muscles/physiology, Male, Muscle Contraction/physiology, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate/physiology, Physical Exertion/physiology, Pressure, Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology, Reference Values, Respiratory Muscles/physiology, Thorax/physiology, Tidal Volume/physiology, Work of Breathing/physiology
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