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Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic determination with fluorescence detection of furosemide in human body fluids and its confirmation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Journal of Chromatography
Furosemide (FD: Lasix) is a loop diuretic which strongly increases both urine flow and electrolyte urinary excretion. Healthy volunteers were administered 40 mg orally (dissolved in water) and concentrations of FD were determined in serum and urine for up to 6 h for eight subjects, who absorbed water at a rate of 400 ml/h. Quantification was performed by HPLC with fluorescence detection (excitation at 233 nm, emission at 389 nm) with a limit of detection of 5 ng/ml for a 300-microliters sample. The elution of FD was completed within 4 min using a gradient of acetonitrile concentration rising from 30 to 50% in 0.08 M phosphoric acid. The delay to the peak serum concentration ranged from 60 to 120 min. FD was still easily measurable in the sera from all subjects 6 h after administration. In urine, the excretion rates reached their maximum between 1 and 3 h. The total amount of FD excreted in the urine averaged 11.2 mg (range 7.6-14.0 mg), with a mean urine volume of 3024 ml (range 2620-3596 ml). Moreover, the urine density was lower than 1.010 (recommended as an upper limit in doping analysis to screen diuretics) only for 2 h. An additional volunteer was administered 40 mg of FD and his urine was collected over a longer period. FD was still detectable 48 h after intake. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with different types of ionization was used to confirm the occurrence of FD after permethylation of the extract. Negative-ion chemical ionization, with ammonia as reactant gas, was found to be the most sensitive method of detection.
Administration, Oral, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid, Fluorescence, Furosemide, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Humans, Male, Substance Abuse Detection, Time Factors
Web of science
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