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The specificity of TRIM5 alpha-mediated restriction is influenced by its coiled-coil domain.
Journal of Virology
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Retroviruses are both powerful evolutionary forces and dangerous threats to genome integrity. As such, they have imposed strong selective pressure on their hosts, notably triggering the emergence of restriction factors, such as TRIM5 alpha, that act as potent barriers to their cross-species transmission. TRIM5 alpha orthologues from different primates have distinct retroviral restriction patterns, largely dictated by the sequence of their C-terminal PRYSPRY domain, which binds the capsid protein of incoming virions. Here, by combining genetic and functional analyses of human and squirrel monkey TRIM5 alpha, we demonstrate that the coiled-coil domain of this protein, thus far essentially known for mediating oligomerization, also conditions the spectrum of antiretroviral activity. Furthermore, we identify three coiled-coil residues responsible for this effect, one of which has been under positive selection during primate evolution, notably in New World monkeys. These results indicate that the PRYSPRY and coiled-coil domains cooperate to determine the specificity of TRIM5 alpha-mediated capture of retroviral capsids, shedding new light on this complex event.
Murine Leukemia-Virus, Trim Family Proteins, Amino-Acid Sites, Retroviral Restriction, Monkey TRIM5-Alpha, Old-World, Positive Selection, Rhesus TRIM5-Alpha, Cyclophilin-A, HIV-1
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