Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Relationships between neuronal death and the cellular redox status. Focus on the developing nervous system.
Progress In Neurobiology
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ; Review
During the development of the nervous system, a large number of neurons are eliminated through naturally occurring neuronal death. Many morphological and biochemical properties of such dying neurons are reminiscent of apoptosis, a type of death involving the action of genetically-programmed events but also epigenetic phenomena including oxidative stress. The following review contains three parts focusing respectively on basic knowledge of neuronal death and redox regulation, the mechanisms involved in neuronal death which are ordered in three sequential phases, and on the complex relations between neuronal fate and the redox status. Finally, we point out that oxidants are not always detrimental for neuronal survival. On the one hand, dying neurons often display signs of oxidative stress, including an elevation of their intracellular concentration of free radicals. Antioxidants may reduce the extent of neuronal death, suggesting a causal implication of free radicals in the death-process. On the other hand, at high concentrations antioxidants may lose their protective effects on developing neurons, and a non-lethal oxidative stress may potentiate the protective effects of other agents. These data suggest that free radicals, perhaps through their effects on cellular signalling pathways, may have positive effects on neuronal survival, provided that their intraneuronal concentrations are maintained at low levels. Much evidence suggests that the neuronal redox status must be maintained within a narrow range of values compatible with survival. Antioxidants may protect neurons subjected to an oxidative stress following axotomy or trophic factor-deprivation; but excessive reduction may become equally detrimental for neurons.
Animals, Nerve Degeneration/metabolism, Nervous System/embryology, Neurons/metabolism, Oxidation-Reduction
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