Role of glutathione deficit in the disconnectivity syndrome in schizophrenia: from pathogenetic mechanisms to therapeutic interventions


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Role of glutathione deficit in the disconnectivity syndrome in schizophrenia: from pathogenetic mechanisms to therapeutic interventions
Titre de la conférence
6. Drei-Länder-Symposium für Biologische Psychiatrie
Do K.Q., Bovet P., Cabungcal J.H., Castagné V., Gheorghita F., Hornung J.P., Schenk F., Steullet P., Tosic M., Cuénod M.
Bern, Schweiz, 21.-24. Oktober 2004
Statut éditorial
Date de publication
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
In the cerebrospinal fluid of 26 drug-naive schizophrenics (DSM-III- R), we observed that the level of glutathione ([GSH]) and of its metabolite γ-Glu-Gln was decreased by 27% and 16% respectively. Using a new in-vivo method based on magnetic resonance spec- troscopy, [GSH] was measured in the medial prefrontal cortex of 18 schizophrenics and found to be 52 % lower than in controls (n = 20). This is consistent with the recently observed decreased mRNA levels in fibroblasts of patients (n=32) of the two GSH synthesizing en- zymes (glutathione synthetase (GSS), and glutamate-cysteine ligase M (GCLM) the modulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase). Moreover, the level of GCLM expression in fibroblasts correlates neg- atively with the psychopathology (positive, general and some nega- tive symptoms). Thus, the observed difference in gene expression is not only the cause of low brain [GSH], but is also related to the sever- ity of symptoms, suggesting that fibroblasts are adequate surrogate for brain tissue. A hypothesis was proposed, based on a central role of GSH in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. GSH is an important endogenous redox regulator and neuroactive substance. GSH is pro- tecting cells from damage by reactive oxygen species generated, among others, by the metabolism of dopamine. A GSH deficit-in- duced oxidative stress would lead to lipid peroxidation and micro-le- sions in the surrounding of catecholamine terminals, affecting the synaptic contacts on dendritic spines of cortical neurones, where ex- citatory glutamatergic terminals converge with dopaminergic ones. This would lead to spines degeneration and abnormal nervous con- nections or structural disconnectivity, possibly responsible for posi- tive, perceptive and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. In addi- tion, a GSH deficit could also lead to a functional disconnectivity by depressing NMDA neurotransmission, in analogy to phencyclidine effects. Present experimental biochemical, cell biological and behav- ioral data are consistent with the proposed mechanism: decreasing pharmacologically [GSH] in experimental models, with or without blocking DA uptake (GBR12909), induces morphological and behav- ioral changes similar to those observed in patients. Dendritic spines: (a) In neuronal cultures, low [GSH] and DA induce decreased density of neural processes; (b) In developing rats (p5-p16), [GSH] deficit and GBR induce a decrease in normal spines in prefrontal pyramids and in GABA-parvalbumine but not of -calretinine immunoreactivity in anterior cingulate. NMDA-dependant synaptic plasticity: GSH deple-
tion in hippocampal slices impairs long-term potentiation. Develop- ing rats with low [GSH] and GBR have deficit in olfactory integration and in object recognition which appears earlier in males than fe- males, in analogy to the delay of the psychosis onset between man and woman. In summary, a deficit of GSH and/or GSH-related enzymes during early development could constitute a major vulnerability fac- tor in schizophrenia.
Création de la notice
10/03/2008 10:49
Dernière modification de la notice
20/08/2019 16:00
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