Using toxicokinetic modeling approach to determine biological reference values (BRVs) and to assess human exposure to pesticides


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Using toxicokinetic modeling approach to determine biological reference values (BRVs) and to assess human exposure to pesticides
Titre du livre
The impact of pesticides
Berthet Aurélie, Bouchard Michèle, Valcke Mathieu, Heredia-Ortiz Roberto
Cheyenne, WY :
Statut éditorial
Date de publication
Editeur scientifique
Jokanovic Milan
Exposure to various pesticides has been characterized in workers and the general population, but interpretation and assessment of biomonitoring data from a health risk perspective remains an issue. For workers, a Biological Exposure Index (BEI®) has been proposed for some substances, but most BEIs are based on urinary biomarker concentrations at Threshold Limit Value - Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) airborne exposure while occupational exposure can potentially occurs through multiple routes, particularly by skin contact (i.e.captan, chlorpyrifos, malathion). Similarly, several biomonitoring studies have been conducted to assess environmental exposure to pesticides in different populations, but dose estimates or health risks related to these environmental exposures (mainly through the diet), were rarely characterized. Recently, biological reference values (BRVs) in the form of urinary pesticide metabolites have been proposed for both occupationally exposed workers and children. These BRVs were established using toxicokinetic models developed for each substance, and correspond to safe levels of absorption in humans, regardless of the exposure scenario. The purpose of this chapter is to present a review of a toxicokinetic modeling approach used to determine biological reference values. These are then used to facilitate health risk assessments and decision-making on occupational and environmental pesticide exposures. Such models have the ability to link absorbed dose of the parent compound to exposure biomarkers and critical biological effects. To obtain the safest BRVs for the studied
population, simulations of exposure scenarios were performed using a conservative reference dose such as a no-observed-effect level (NOEL). The various examples discussed in this chapter show the importance of knowledge on urine collections (i.e. spot samples and complete 8-h, 12-h or 24-h collections), sampling strategies, metabolism, relative proportions of the different metabolites in urine, absorption fraction, route of exposure and background contribution of prior exposures. They also show that relying on urinary measurements of specific metabolites appears more accurate when applying this approach to the case of occupational exposures. Conversely, relying on semi-specific metabolites (metabolites common to a category of pesticides) appears more accurate for the health risk assessment of
environmental exposures given that the precise pesticides to which subjects are exposed are often unknown. In conclusion, the modeling approach to define BRVs for the relevant pesticides may be useful for public health authorities for managing issues related to health risks resulting from environmental and occupational exposures to pesticides.
Pesticides , Occupational Exposure , Environmental Exposure
Création de la notice
11/01/2013 14:23
Dernière modification de la notice
20/08/2019 16:31
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