Adiposity in children born small for gestational age.

Détails

ID Serval
serval:BIB_899F8CA6DE76
Type
Article: article d'un périodique ou d'un magazine.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Titre
Adiposity in children born small for gestational age.
Périodique
International Journal of Obesity
Auteur(s)
Tappy L.
ISSN
0307-0565 (Print)
ISSN-L
0307-0565
Statut éditorial
Publié
Date de publication
2006
Volume
30
Numéro
Suppl 4
Pages
S36-S40
Langue
anglais
Résumé
Epidemiological studies indicate that children born small for gestational age (SGA) have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders as adults. This suggests that foetal undernutrition leads to permanent metabolic alterations, which predispose to metabolic abnormalities upon exposure to environmental factors such as low physical activity and/or high-energy intake in later life (thrifty phenotype hypothesis). However, this relationship is not restricted to foetal undernutrition or intrauterine growth retardation, but is also found for children born premature, or for high birth weight children. Furthermore, early post-natal nutrition, and more specifically catch-up growth, appear to modulate cardiovascular risk as well. Intrauterine growth retardation can be induced in animal models by energy/protein restriction, or ligation of uterine arteries. In such models, altered glucose homeostasis, including low beta-cell mass, low insulin secretion and insulin resistance is observed after a few weeks of age. In humans, several studies have confirmed that children born SGA have insulin resistance as adolescents and young adults. Alterations of glucose homeostasis and increased lipid oxidation can indeed be observed already in non-diabetic children born SGA at early pubertal stages. These children also have alterations of stature and changes in body composition (increased fat mass), which may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Permanent metabolic changes induced by foetal/early neonatal nutrition (metabolic inprinting) may involve modulation of gene expression through DNA methylation, or alterations of organ structure. It is also possible that events occurring during foetal/neonatal development lead to long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis.
Mots-clé
Adipose Tissue/metabolism, Adipose Tissue/physiology, Adolescent, Animals, Body Composition/physiology, Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism, Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology, Child, Child, Preschool, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Infant, Small for Gestational Age, Insulin Resistance/physiology, Risk Factors
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Oui
Création de la notice
03/11/2010 17:08
Dernière modification de la notice
20/08/2019 14:48
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