Methods to assess neuroinflammation.

Détails

ID Serval
serval:BIB_6DD0BF1E70AC
Type
Partie de livre
Sous-type
Chapitre: chapitre ou section
Collection
Publications
Institution
Titre
Methods to assess neuroinflammation.
Titre du livre
Current protocols in Toxicology
Auteur(s)
Monnet-Tschudi F., Defaux A., Braissant O., Cagnon L., Zurich M.G.
Editeur
Wiley
ISBN
1934-9262 (Electronic)
Statut éditorial
Publié
Date de publication
2011
Numéro de chapitre
12
Pages
Unit12.19
Langue
anglais
Résumé
Neuroinflammation is observed in many brain pathologies: in neurodegenerative diseases and multiple sclerosis as well as in chemically induced lesions. It is characterized by the reactivity of microglial cells and astrocytes, activation of inducible NO-synthase (i-NOS), and increased expression and/or release of cytokines and chemokines. Clearly, cell-to-cell signaling between the different brain cell types plays an important role in the initiation and propagation of neuroinflammation, but despite the growing list of known molecular actors, the underlying pathways and the sequence of events remain to be fully elucidated. The present chapter presents an example of how to assess neuroinflammation in complex brain tissues, using aggregating brain cell cultures as an in vitro model. This three-dimensional cell culture system provides optimal cell-to-cell interactions crucial for histotypic cellular maturation and control of neuroinflammatory processes. The techniques described here comprise immunocytochemistry to assess the reactivity of microglia and astrocytes and the expression of cytokines; quantitative RT-PCR to measure the mRNA expression of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-1ra, TGF-β, IL-15, IFN-γ), chemokines (ccl5, cxcl1, cxcl2), and i-NOS; and immunoblotting to assess MAP kinase pathway activation (phosphorylation of p38 and p44/42 MAP kinases).
Mots-clé
Animals, Astrocytes/cytology, Astrocytes/immunology, Biological Markers/analysis, Cell Culture Techniques/methods, Cytokines/biosynthesis, Cytokines/genetics, Encephalitis/immunology, Encephalitis/metabolism, Humans, Immunoblotting, Immunohistochemistry, Microglia/cytology, Microglia/immunology, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism, RNA, Messenger/genetics, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Pubmed
Création de la notice
20/02/2012 17:33
Dernière modification de la notice
20/08/2019 15:27
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