Gliotransmission and the tripartite synapse.

Détails

ID Serval
serval:BIB_5E41DD3905A3
Type
Partie de livre
Sous-type
Chapitre: chapitre ou section
Collection
Publications
Institution
Titre
Gliotransmission and the tripartite synapse.
Titre du livre
Synaptic plasticity : dynamics, development and disease
Auteur⸱e⸱s
Santello M., Calì C., Bezzi P.
Editeur
Springer
Lieu d'édition
Wien
ISBN
978-3-7091-0931-1
Statut éditorial
Publié
Date de publication
2012
Editeur⸱rice scientifique
Kreutz M.R., Sla C.
Volume
970
Série
Advances in Experimental Medecine and Biology
Numéro de chapitre
14
Pages
307-331
Langue
anglais
Résumé
In the last years, the classical view of glial cells (in particular of astrocytes) as a simple supportive cell for neurons has been replaced by a new vision in which glial cells are active elements of the brain. Such a new vision is based on the existence of a bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons at synaptic level. Indeed, perisynaptic processes of astrocytes express active G-protein-coupled receptors that are able (1) to sense neurotransmitters released from the synapse during synaptic activity, (2) to increase cytosolic levels of calcium, and (3) to stimulate the release of gliotransmitters that in turn can interact with the synaptic elements. The mechanism(s) by which astrocytes can release gliotransmitter has been extensively studied during the last years. Many evidences have suggested that a fraction of astrocytes in situ release neuroactive substances both with calcium-dependent and calcium-independent mechanism(s); whether these mechanisms coexist and under what physiological or pathological conditions they occur, it remains unclear. However, the calcium-dependent exocytotic vesicular release has received considerable attention due to its potential to occur under physiological conditions via a finely regulated way. By releasing gliotransmitters in millisecond time scale with a specific vesicular apparatus, astrocytes can integrate and process synaptic information and control or modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity.
Mots-clé
Astrocytes, D-serine, Exocytosis, Extrasynaptic NMDA-receptors, Gliotransmitters
Pubmed
Création de la notice
23/05/2012 10:33
Dernière modification de la notice
20/08/2019 15:16
Données d'usage