Acute coronary syndromes or myocarditis in young people: a difficult daily diagnostic challenge


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Acute coronary syndromes or myocarditis in young people: a difficult daily diagnostic challenge
Titre de la conférence
ESC Congress of the European Society of Cardiology 2012
Pellaton C., Monney P., Ludman A. J., Schwitter J., Eeckhout E., Hugli O., Muller O.
München, Germany, August 25-29, 2012
Statut éditorial
Date de publication
European Heart Journal
Background: Chest pain (CP) represents about 5% of admissions to emergency departments (ED), even in young people. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and myocarditis are among the most important diagnoses to rule out. Clinical and ECG findings are not specific for either condition and separating both diagnoses is a challenge.
Aim of the study: To evaluate the prevalence of ACS and myocarditis in young patients presenting with CP and elevated cardiac biomarkers to the ED and to determinate the differences in their clinical presentation.
Methods: Retrospective study of all consecutive patients < 40 years old admitted to our ED from January 2009 to June 2011 for CP with elevated serum troponin concentration. All clinical, angiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) data from the local database was reviewed. Clinical follow-up was obtained to assess all cause mortality, myocardial infarction and re-hospitalisation for CP.
Results: 1588 patients < 40 years old were admitted to the ED with chest pain. 49 (3%) patients presenting with an elevated troponin I (> 0.09ug/l) were included in the study. 32.7% (16/49) were diagnosed with ACS (11 STEMI and 5 NSTEMI) and 59.2% (29/49) with myocarditis. Among the 29 patients with myocarditis, 17 presented with typical subepicardial late enhancement on CMR and 12 were diagnosed based on clinical presentation (6 had no complementary workup, 3 normal coronary angiogram and 3 inconclusive CMR). 8.1% (4/49) of patients had other diagnoses. Compared to patients with myocarditis, ACS patients were older (34.1±3.9 vs 26.9±6.4, p=0.0002) with significantly more cardiovascular risk factors (mean 2.06 vs 0.69, p<0.0001). Diabetes (18.8% vs 0%, p=0.004), dyslipidemia (56.3% vs 3.4%, p=0.0001) and family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) (37.5% vs 10.3%, p=0.050) were significantly associated with ACS. No significant association was found for smoking, hypertension and obesity. Fever (>38°C) or recent viral illness were present in 75.9% (22/29) of patients with myocarditis, and in 0% of ACS patients. During follow-up (mean 19.9 months ± 8.6), only 2 patients with myocarditis were re-admitted for chest pain.
Conclusions: In this study, 32.7% of patients < 40 year old admitted to an ED with CP and elevated troponin had an ACS. Key clinical factors include diabetes, dyslipidemia, family history of CAD, fever or recent viral illness, and may help to differentiate ACS from myocarditis.
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Création de la notice
14/12/2012 17:15
Dernière modification de la notice
20/08/2019 14:32
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