Effects of particulate matters on inflammatory markers in the general adult population


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Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Abstract (Abstract): shot summary in a article that contain essentials elements presented during a scientific conference, lecture or from a poster.
Effects of particulate matters on inflammatory markers in the general adult population
Title of the conference
Geneva Health Forum 2012, A Critical Shift to Chronic Conditions: Learning from the Frontliners
Tsai D.H., Amyai N., Marques-Vidal P., Wang J.L., Riediker M., Mooser V., Paccaud F., Waeber G., Vollenweider P., Bochud M.
Geneva, Switzerland, April 18-20, 2012
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Summary: Particulate air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The induction of systemic inflammation following particle inhalation represents a plausible mechanistic pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the associations of short-term exposure to ambient particulate matters of aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) with circulating inflammatory markers in 6183 adults in Lausanne, Switzerland. The results show that short-term exposure to PM10 was associated with higher levels of circulating IL-6 and TNF-α. The positive association of PM10 with markers of systemic inflammation materializes the link between air pollution and cardiovascular risk.
Background: Variations in short-term exposure to particulate matters (PM) have been repeatedly associated with daily all-cause mortality. Particle-induced inflammation has been postulated to be one of the important mechanisms for increased cardiovascular risk. Experimental in-vitro, in-vivo and controlled human studies suggest that interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor-necrosis-factor alpha (TNF-α) could represent key mediators of the inflammatory response to PM. The associations of short-term exposure to ambient PM with circulating inflammatory markers have been inconsistent in studies including specific subgroups so far. The epidemiological evidence linking short-term exposure to ambient PM and systemic inflammation in the general population is scarce. So far, large-scale population-based studies have not explored important inflammatory markers such as IL-6, IL-1β or TNF-α. We therefore analyzed the associations between short-term exposure to ambient PM10 and circulating levels of high-sensitive CRP (hs-CRP), IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in the population-based CoLaus study.
Objectives: To assess the associations of short-term exposure to ambient particulate matters of aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) with circulating inflammatory markers, including hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α, in adults aged 35 to 75 years from the general population.
Methodology: All study subjects were participants to the CoLaus study (www.colaus.ch) and the baseline examination was carried out from 2003 to 2006. Overall, 6184 participants were included. For the present analysis, 6183 participants had data on at least one of the four measured circulating inflammatory markers. The monitoring data was obtained from the website of Swiss National Air Pollution Monitoring Network (NABEL). We analyzed data on PM10 as well as outside air temperature, pressure and humidity. Hourly concentrations of PM10 were collected from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2006. Robust linear regression (PROC ROBUSTREG) was used to evaluate the relationship between cytokine inflammatory and PM10. We adjusted all analyses for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, diabetes status, hypertension status, education levels, zip code, and statin intake. All data were adjusted for the effects of weather by including temperature, barometric pressure, and season as covariates in the adjusted models. We performed simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. Descriptive statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon rank sum test (for medians). All data analyses were performed using SAS software (version 9.2; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA), and a two-sided significance level of 5% was used.
Results: PM10 levels averaged over 24 hours were significantly and positively associated with continuous IL-6 and TNF-α levels, in the whole study population both in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. For each cytokine, there was a similar seasonal pattern, with wider confidence intervals in summer than during the other seasons, which might partly be due to the smaller number of participants examined in summer. The associations of PM10 with IL-6 and TNF-α were also found after having dichotomized these cytokines into high versus low levels, which suggests that the associations of PM10 with the continuous cytokine levels are very robust to any distributional assumption and to potential outlier values. In contrast with what we observed for continuous IL-1β levels, high PM10 levels were significantly associated with high IL-1β. PM10 was significantly associated with IL-6 and TNF-α in men, but with TNF-α only in women. However, there was no significant statistical interaction between PM10 and sex. For IL-6 and TNF-α, the associations tended to be stronger in younger people, with a significant interaction between PM10 and age groups for IL-6. PM10 was significantly associated with IL-6 and TNF-α in the healthy group and also in the "non-healthy" group, although the statistical interaction between healthy status and PM10 was not significant.
Conclusion: In summary, we found significant independent positive associations of short-term exposure to PM10 with circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the adult population of Lausanne. Our findings strongly support the idea that short-term exposure to PM10 is sufficient to induce systemic inflammation on a broad scale in the general population. From a public health perspective, the reported association of elevated inflammatory cytokines with short-term exposure to PM10 in a city with relatively clean air such as Lausanne supports the importance of limiting urban air pollution levels.
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12/03/2013 19:12
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