Neuronal regulation of glucagon secretion and gluconeogenesis.

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Ressource 1Download: J of Diabetes Invest - 2022 - Thorens - Neuronal regulation of glucagon secretion and gluconeogenesis.pdf (962.13 [Ko])
State: Public
Version: Final published version
License: CC BY-NC 4.0
Serval ID
serval:BIB_F099AC71737F
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Publication sub-type
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
Neuronal regulation of glucagon secretion and gluconeogenesis.
Journal
Journal of diabetes investigation
Author(s)
Thorens B.
ISSN
2040-1124 (Electronic)
ISSN-L
2040-1116
Publication state
Published
Issued date
04/2022
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
13
Number
4
Pages
599-607
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Review
Publication Status: ppublish
Abstract
Hypoglycemia almost never develops in healthy individuals, because multiple hypoglycemia sensing systems, located in the periphery and in the central nervous system, trigger a coordinated counterregulatory hormonal response to restore normoglycemia. This involves not only the secretion of glucagon, but also of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and growth hormone. Increased hepatic glucose production is also stimulated by direct autonomous nervous connections to the liver that stimulate glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. This counterregulatory response, however, becomes deregulated in a significant fraction of diabetes patients that receive insulin therapy. This leads to the risk of developing hypoglycemic episodes, of increasing severity, which negatively impact the quality of life of the patients. How hypoglycemia is detected by the central nervous system is being actively investigated. Recent studies using novel molecular biological, optogenetic and chemogenetic techniques allow the characterization of glucose-sensing neurons, the mechanisms of hypoglycemia detection, the neuronal circuits in which they are integrated and the physiological responses they control. This review discusses recent studies aimed at identifying central hypoglycemia sensing neuronal circuits, how neurons are activated by hypoglycemia and how they restore normoglycemia.
Keywords
Blood Glucose, Glucagon/metabolism, Gluconeogenesis, Humans, Hypoglycemia, Insulin/metabolism, Neurons/metabolism, Quality of Life, Glucagon, Hypothalamus
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Yes
Create date
04/02/2022 18:12
Last modification date
04/05/2022 6:35
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