'Herbal' but potentially hazardous: an analysis of the constituents and smoke emissions of tobacco-free waterpipe products and the air quality in the cafes where they are served

Details

Serval ID
serval:BIB_EF7A9FD6ED42
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Collection
Publications
Title
'Herbal' but potentially hazardous: an analysis of the constituents and smoke emissions of tobacco-free waterpipe products and the air quality in the cafes where they are served
Journal
Tobacco Control
Author(s)
Hammal Fardi, Chappell Alyssa, Wild T. Cameron , Kindzierski Warren, Shihadeh Alan, Vanderhoek Amanda, Huynh Cong Khanh, Plateel Gregory, Finegan Barry A.
ISSN
1468-3318 (Electronic)
ISSN-L
0964-4563 (Linking)
Publication state
Published
Issued date
05/2015
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
24
Number
3
Pages
290-297
Language
english
Abstract
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the composition and smoke emissions of 'herbal' shisha products and the air quality of establishments where they are smoked. METHODS: Three studies of 'herbal' shisha were conducted: (1) samples of 'herbal' shisha products were chemically analysed; (2) 'herbal' and tobacco shisha were burned in a waterpipe smoking machine and main and sidestream smoke analysed by standard methods and (3) the air quality of six waterpipe cafes was assessed by measurement of CO, particulate and nicotine vapour content. RESULTS: We found considerable variation in heavy metal content between the three products sampled, one being particularly high in lead, chromium, nickel and arsenic. A similar pattern emerged for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke emission analyses indicated that toxic byproducts produced by the combustion of 'herbal' shisha were equivalent or greater than those produced by tobacco shisha. The results of our air quality assessment demonstrated that mean PM2.5 levels and CO content were significantly higher in waterpipe establishments compared to a casino where cigarette smoking was permitted. Nicotine vapour was detected in one of the waterpipe cafes. CONCLUSIONS: 'Herbal' shisha products tested contained toxic trace metals and PAHs levels equivalent to, or in excess of, that found in cigarettes. Their mainstream and sidestream smoke emissions contained carcinogens equivalent to, or in excess of, those of tobacco products. The content of the air in the waterpipe cafes tested was potentially hazardous. These data, in aggregate, suggest that smoking 'herbal' shisha may well be dangerous to health.
Keywords
Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis , Particulate Matter , Particulate Matter/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Smoking , Smoking/prevention & control , Nicotine , Nicotine/analysis , Air pollution, Indoor , Canada
Pubmed
Web of science
Create date
22/10/2013 9:49
Last modification date
03/03/2018 22:34
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