Pneumocystis Mating-Type Locus and Sexual Cycle during Infection.

Details

Serval ID
serval:BIB_D52AB688888C
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Publication sub-type
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
Pneumocystis Mating-Type Locus and Sexual Cycle during Infection.
Journal
Microbiology and molecular biology reviews
Author(s)
Hauser P.M.
ISSN
1098-5557 (Electronic)
ISSN-L
1092-2172
Publication state
Published
Issued date
18/08/2021
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
85
Number
3
Pages
e0000921
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ; Review
Publication Status: ppublish
Abstract
Pneumocystis species colonize mammalian lungs and cause deadly pneumonia if the immune system of the host weakens. Each species presents a specificity for a single mammalian host species. Pneumocystis jirovecii infects humans and provokes pneumonia, which is among the most frequent invasive fungal infections. The lack of in vitro culture methods for these fungi complicates their study. Recently, high-throughput sequencing technologies followed by comparative genomics have allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the sexuality of Pneumocystis organisms. The structure of their mating-type locus corresponding to a fusion of two loci, Plus and Minus, and the concomitant expression of the three mating-type genes revealed that their mode of sexual reproduction is primarily homothallism. This mode is favored by microbial pathogens and involves a single self-compatible mating type that can enter into the sexual cycle on its own. Pneumocystis sexuality is obligatory within the host's lungs during pneumonia in adults, primary infection in children, and possibly colonization. This sexuality participates in cell proliferation, airborne transmission to new hosts, and probably antigenic variation, processes that are crucial to ensure the survival of the fungus. Thus, sexuality is central in the Pneumocystis life cycle. The obligate biotrophic parasitism with obligate sexuality of Pneumocystis is unique among fungi pathogenic to humans. Pneumocystis organisms are similar to the plant fungal obligate biotrophs that complete their entire life cycle within their hosts, including sex, and that are also difficult to grow in vitro.
Keywords
Animals, DNA, Fungal/genetics, Genome, Fungal/genetics, Humans, Life Cycle Stages/genetics, Lung/microbiology, Pneumocystis/genetics, Pneumocystis Infections/microbiology, Reproduction/genetics, Pneumocystis, Taphrinomycotina, obligate parasite, obligate sexuality, opportunistic fungi, sexuality
Pubmed
Create date
28/06/2021 11:47
Last modification date
21/09/2021 14:44
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