Diversity of Reactive Astrogliosis in CNS Pathology: Heterogeneity or Plasticity?

Details

Serval ID
serval:BIB_C5C74D01056B
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Publication sub-type
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
Diversity of Reactive Astrogliosis in CNS Pathology: Heterogeneity or Plasticity?
Journal
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience
Author(s)
Moulson A.J., Squair J.W., Franklin RJM, Tetzlaff W., Assinck P.
ISSN
1662-5102 (Print)
ISSN-L
1662-5102
Publication state
Published
Issued date
2021
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
15
Pages
703810
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Review
Publication Status: epublish
Abstract
Astrocytes are essential for the development and homeostatic maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS). They are also critical players in the CNS injury response during which they undergo a process referred to as "reactive astrogliosis." Diversity in astrocyte morphology and gene expression, as revealed by transcriptional analysis, is well-recognized and has been reported in several CNS pathologies, including ischemic stroke, CNS demyelination, and traumatic injury. This diversity appears unique to the specific pathology, with significant variance across temporal, topographical, age, and sex-specific variables. Despite this, there is limited functional data corroborating this diversity. Furthermore, as reactive astrocytes display significant environmental-dependent plasticity and fate-mapping data on astrocyte subsets in the adult CNS is limited, it remains unclear whether this diversity represents heterogeneity or plasticity. As astrocytes are important for neuronal survival and CNS function post-injury, establishing to what extent this diversity reflects distinct established heterogeneous astrocyte subpopulations vs. environmentally dependent plasticity within established astrocyte subsets will be critical for guiding therapeutic development. To that end, we review the current state of knowledge on astrocyte diversity in the context of three representative CNS pathologies: ischemic stroke, demyelination, and traumatic injury, with the goal of identifying key limitations in our current knowledge and suggesting future areas of research needed to address them. We suggest that the majority of identified astrocyte diversity in CNS pathologies to date represents plasticity in response to dynamically changing post-injury environments as opposed to heterogeneity, an important consideration for the understanding of disease pathogenesis and the development of therapeutic interventions.
Keywords
CNS demyelination, heterogeneity, ischemic stroke, plasticity, reactive astrocytes, single-cell RNA sequencing, spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI)
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Yes
Create date
20/08/2021 17:04
Last modification date
02/12/2023 8:15
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