Secular trends in physical growth, biological maturation, and intelligence in children and adolescents born between 1978 and 1993.

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State: Public
Version: Final published version
License: CC BY 4.0
Serval ID
serval:BIB_9D4C4B3C13CC
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
Secular trends in physical growth, biological maturation, and intelligence in children and adolescents born between 1978 and 1993.
Journal
Frontiers in public health
Author(s)
Eichelberger D.A., Chaouch A., Rousson V., Kakebeeke T.H., Caflisch J., Wehrle F.M., Jenni O.G.
ISSN
2296-2565 (Electronic)
ISSN-L
2296-2565
Publication state
Published
Issued date
2024
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
12
Pages
1216164
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Publication Status: epublish
Abstract
Human physical growth, biological maturation, and intelligence have been documented as increasing for over 100 years. Comparing the timing of secular trends in these characteristics could provide insight into what underlies them. However, they have not been examined in parallel in the same cohort during different developmental phases. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine secular trends in body height, weight, and head circumference, biological maturation, and intelligence by assessing these traits concurrently at four points during development: the ages of 4, 9, 14, and 18 years.
Data derived from growth measures, bone age as an indicator of biological maturation, and full-scale intelligence tests were drawn from 236 participants of the Zurich Longitudinal Studies born between 1978 and 1993. In addition, birth weight was analyzed as an indicator of prenatal conditions.
Secular trends for height and weight at 4 years were positive (0.35 SD increase per decade for height and an insignificant 0.27 SD increase per decade for weight) and remained similar at 9 and 14 years (height: 0.46 SD and 0.38 SD increase per decade; weight: 0.51 SD and 0.51 SD increase per decade, respectively) as well as for weight at age 18 years (0.36 SD increase per decade). In contrast, the secular trend in height was no longer evident at age 18 years (0.09 SD increase per decade). Secular trends for biological maturation at 14 years were similar to those of height and weight (0.54 SD increase per decade). At 18 years, the trend was non-significant (0.38 SD increase per decade). For intelligence, a positive secular trend was found at 4 years (0.54 SD increase per decade). In contrast, negative secular trends were observed at 9 years (0.54 SD decrease per decade) and 14 years (0.60 SD decrease per decade). No secular trend was observed at any of the four ages for head circumference (0.01, 0.24, 0.17, and - 0.04 SD increase per decade, respectively) and birth weight (0.01 SD decrease per decade).
The different patterns of changes in physical growth, biological maturation, and intelligence between 1978 and 1993 indicate that distinct mechanisms underlie these secular trends.
Keywords
Humans, Adolescent, Child, Intelligence, Female, Male, Child, Preschool, Body Height, Longitudinal Studies, Child Development, Birth Weight, Body Weight, Switzerland, Flynn effect, IQ, birth weight, cognitive functioning, head circumference, height, skeletal maturation, weight
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Yes
Create date
16/05/2024 16:14
Last modification date
24/07/2024 7:14
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