Impact of incarceration on cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review and meta-regression on weight and BMI change

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State: Public
Version: Final published version
License: CC BY-NC 4.0
Serval ID
serval:BIB_9B464D27D9FA
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
Impact of incarceration on cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review and meta-regression on weight and BMI change
Journal
BMJ open
Author(s)
Bondolfi C. (co-first), Taffe P., Augsburger A., Jaques C., Malebranche M., Clair C., Bodenmann P. (co-last)
ISSN
2044-6055 (Electronic)
ISSN-L
2044-6055
Publication state
Published
Issued date
16/10/2020
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
10
Number
10
Pages
e039278
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article
Publication Status: epublish
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease is an underappreciated issue in prison medicine. Recent studies have revealed a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs) among individuals in prison, but the impact of incarceration on CVDRFs over time is not well understood. This review aimed to assess available literature and quantify the relationship between incarceration and trends in major CVDRFs in high-income countries.
Systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Meta-regression on weight change and obesity.
Medline, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Central Wiley and Web of Science.
Longitudinal studies reporting on the incidence of, or trends in any CVDRF among current or former people in prison over time, in high-income countries.
Two authors independently screened articles for eligibility, extracted data and assessed quality using an adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Trends in CVDRFs during and following incarceration were summarised and in those with sufficient data a meta-regression was performed.
Twenty-six articles were identified. CVDRFs assessed included obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, tobacco use, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet. A meta-regression on change in weight during incarceration found a mean increase of 5.3 kg (95% CI 0.5 to 10.1) and change in body mass index of 1.8 kg/m <sup>2</sup> (95% CI -0.9 to 4.6) at 2 years. Weight gain appeared most pronounced right after entering prison and then plateaued at 2 years. Concerning hypertension, the results were inconclusive, despite a trend towards rising blood pressure or prevalence of hypertension during incarceration, and an increased incidence of hypertension following incarceration. Results are contradictory or inconclusive for the other CVDRFs reviewed.
Possible explanations for the association between incarceration and weight include a sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, forced smoking cessation, psychotropic medication use and high levels of stress. Incarceration may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Keywords
general endocrinology, general medicine (see internal medicine), hypertension, primary care, public health
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Yes
Create date
23/11/2020 17:50
Last modification date
21/07/2021 6:39
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