ON THE ROLE OF PERIOD-2 IN THE CIRCADIAN AND HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION OF SLEEP

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Serval ID
serval:BIB_90706D427FA0
Type
PhD thesis: a PhD thesis.
Collection
Publications
Title
ON THE ROLE OF PERIOD-2 IN THE CIRCADIAN AND HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION OF SLEEP
Author(s)
La Spada F.
Director(s)
Franken  P.
Institution details
Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Address
Centre Intégratif de Génomique Génopode Quartier Sorge 1015-Lausanne-Dorigny
Publication state
Accepted
Issued date
11/2013
Language
english
Number of pages
154
Abstract
Humans spend one third of their life sleeping, then we could raise the basic question: Why do we sleep? Despite the fact that we still don't fully understand its function, we made much progress in understanding at different levels how sleep is regulated. One model suggests that sleep is regulated by two processes: a homeostatic process that tracks the need for sleep and by a circadian rhythm that determines the preferred time-of-day sleep occurs.
At the molecular level circadian rhythms are a property of interlocking transcriptional regula-tors referred to as clock genes. The heterodimeric transcription factors BMAL1::CLOCK/NPAS2 drive the transcription of many target genes including the clock genes Cryptochome1 (Cry1), Cry2, Period1 (Per1), and Per2. The encoded CRY/PER proteins are transcriptional inhibitors of BMAL1::CLOCK/NPAS2 thereby providing negative feedback to their own transcription. These genes seem, however, also involved in sleep homeostasis because the brain expression of clock genes, es-pecially that of Per2, increase as a function of time-spent-awake and because mice lacking clock genes display altered sleep homeostasis.
The aim of first part of my doctoral work has been to advance our understanding the link that exists between sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythms investigating a possible mechanism by which sleep deprivation could alter clock gene expression by quantifying DNA-binding of the core-clock genes BMAL1, CLOCK and NPAS2 to their target chromatin loci including the E-box enhancers of the Per2 promoter. We made use of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and quantitative poly-merase chain reaction (qPCR) to show that DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to their target genes changes as a function of time-of-day in both liver and cerebral cortex. We then performed a 6h sleep deprivation (SD) and observed a significant decrease in DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to Dbp. This is consistent with a decrease in Dbp mRNA levels after SD. The DNA-binding of NPAS2 and BMAL1 to Per2 was similarly decreased following SD. However, SD has been previously shown to in-crease Per2 expression in the cortex which seems paradoxical. Our results demonstrate that sleep-wake history can affect the molecular clock machinery directly at the level of the chromatin thereby altering the cortical expression of Dbp and Per2, and likely other targets. However, the precise dy-namic relationship between DNA-binding and mRNA expression, especially for Per2, remains elusive.
The second aim of my doctoral work has been to perform an in depth characterization of cir-cadian rhythmicity, sleep architecture, analyze the response to SD in full null-Per2 knock-out (Per2-/-) mice, and Per1-/- mice, as well as their double knock-out offspring (Per1,2-/-) and littermate wildtype (Wt) mice. The techniques used include locomotor activity recording by passive infrared (PIR) sen-sors, EEG/EMG surgery, recording, and analysis, and cerebral cortex extraction and quantification of mRNA levels by qPCR. Under standard LD12:12 conditions, we found that wakefulness onset, as well as the time courses of clock gene expression in the brain and corticosterone plasma levels were ad-vanced by about 2h in Per2-/- mice compared to Wt mice. When released under constant dark condi-tions almost all Per2-/- mice (97%) became arrhythmic immediately. From these observations, we conclude that while Per2-/- mice seem to be able to anticipate dark onset, this does not result from a self-sustained circadian clock. Our results suggest instead that the earlier onset of activity results from a labile, not-self sustained 22h rhythm linked to light onset suggesting the existence of a light-driven rhythm. Analyses of sleep under LD12:12 conditions revealed that in both Per2-/- and Per1,2-/- mice the same sleep phenotypes are observed compared to Wt mice: increased NREM sleep frag-mentation and inability to adequately compensate the loss of NREM sleep. That suggests a possible role of PER2 in sleep consolidation and recovery.
Keywords
sleep homeostasis, circadian, period-2, sleep deprivation, DNA-binding
Create date
02/12/2013 12:18
Last modification date
20/08/2019 15:53
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