Determination of testosterone misuse in sport, an international comparative study


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Determination of testosterone misuse in sport, an international comparative study
Title of the conference
Annales de toxicologie analytique
Strahm E., Sottas P.E., Dvorak J., Saugy M., Saudan C.
EDP Sciences S.A.
SFTA : Société Française de Toxicologie Analytique
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Jean-Pierre Goullé
Oral présentations : 048
Introduction: Urinary steroid profiling is used in doping controls to detect testosterone abuse. A testosterone over epitestosterone (T/E) ratio exceeding 4.0 is considered as suspicious of testosterone administration, irrespectively of individual heterogeneous factors such as the athlete's ethnicity. A deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene was demonstrated to account for a significant part of the inter-individual variability in the T/E between Caucasians and Asians. However, the anti-doping strategy includes the determination of carbon isotope ratio on androgen metabolites which has been demonstrated to be reliable for the direct detection of testosterone misuse. Herein, we examined the profiles and the variability in the 13C/12Cratios of urinary steroids in a widely heterogeneous cohort of professional soccer players residing in different world countries (Argentina, Italy, Japan, South-Africa, Switzerland and Uganda).
Aim: The determination of threshold values based on genotype information and diet specific of the ethnicity is expected to enhance significantly the detection of testosterone misuse.
Methods: The steroid profile of 57 Africans, 32 Asians, 50 Caucasians and 32 Hispanics was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The carbon isotope ratio of selected androgens in urine specimens were determined by means of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS).
Results: Significant differences have been observed between all ethnic groups. After estimation of the prevalence of the UGT2B17 deletion/deletion genotype (African:22%; Asian:81%; Caucasian:10%; Hispanic:7%), ethnicspecific thresholds were developed for a specificity of 99% for the T/E (African:5.6; Asian:3.8; Caucasian:5.7; Hispanic:5.8). Italian and Swiss populations recorded an enrichment in 13C of the urinary steroids with respect to the other groups, thereby supporting consumption of a relatively larger proportion of C3 plants in their diet. Noteworthy, detection criteria based on the difference in the carbon isotope ratio of androsterone and pregnanediol for each population were well below the established threshold value for positive cases.
Conclusion: These profiling results demonstrate that a unique and nonspecific threshold to evidence testosterone misuse is not fit for purpose. In addition, the carbon isotopic ratio from these different diet groups highlight the importance to adapt the criteria for increasing the sensitivity in the detection of exogenous testosterone. In conclusion, it may be emphasized that combining the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry including refined interpretation criteria for positivity and the subject-based profiling of steroids will most probably improve the efficiency of the confirmatory test.
steroids profiling, IRMS, doping
Create date
15/02/2010 15:53
Last modification date
20/08/2019 15:51
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