Is Less Chemotherapy Detrimental in Adults with Philadelphia Chromosome (Ph)-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Treated with High-Dose Imatinib? Results of the Prospective Randomized Graaph-2005 Study


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Is Less Chemotherapy Detrimental in Adults with Philadelphia Chromosome (Ph)-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Treated with High-Dose Imatinib? Results of the Prospective Randomized Graaph-2005 Study
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ASH 2012, 54th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology
Chalandon Y., Thomas X., Hayette S., Cayuela J.M., Abbal C., Huguet F., Raffoux E., Leguay T., Lepretre S., Escoffre-Barbe M., Maury S., Berthon C., Tavernier E., Lambert J.F., Lafage M., Lheritier V., Chevret S., Ifrah N., Dombret H.
Atlanta, Georgia, United-States, December 8-11, 2012
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Abstract 138
Aim: To compare a less intensive regimen based on high-dose imatinib (IM) to an intensive IM/HyperCVAD regimen in adults with Ph+ ALL, in terms of early response and outcome after stem cell transplantation (SCT).
Methods: Patients aged 18-60 years with previously untreated Ph+ ALL not evolving from chronic myeloid leukemia were eligible if no contra-indication to chemotherapy and SCT ( ID, NCT00327678). After a steroid prephase allowing Ph and/or BCR-ABL diagnosis, cycle 1 differed between randomization arms. In arm A (IM-based), IM was given at 800 mg on day 1-28, combined with vincristine (2 mg, day 1, 8, 15, 22) and dexamethasone (40 mg, day 1-2, 8-9, 15-16, and 22-23) only. In arm B (IM/HyperCVAD), IM was given at 800 mg on day 1-14, combined with adriamycin (50 mg/m2, day 4), cyclophosphamide (300 mg/m2/12h, day 1, 2, 3), vincristine (2 mg, day 4 and 11), and dexamethasone (40 mg, day 1-4 and 11-14). All patients received a cycle 2 combining high-dose methotrexate (1 g/m2, day 1) and AraC (3 g/m2/12h, day 2 and 3) with IM at 800 mg on day 1-14, whatever their response. Four intrathecal infusions were given during this induction/consolidation period. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was centrally evaluated by quantitative RQ-PCR after cycle 1 (MRD1) and cycle 2 (MRD2). Major MRD response was defined as BCR-ABL/ABL ratio <0.1%. Then, all patients were to receive allogeneic SCT using related or unrelated matched donor stem cells or autologous SCT if no donor and a major MRD2 response. IM/chemotherapy maintenance was planned after autologous SCT. In the absence of SCT, patients received alternating cycles 1 (as in arm B) and cycles 2 followed by maintenance, like in the published IM/HyperCVAD regimen. The primary objective was non-inferiority of arm A in term of major MRD2 response. Secondary objectives were CR rate, SCT rate, treatment- and transplant-related mortality, relapse-free (RFS), event-free (EFS) and overall (OS) survival.
Results: Among the 270 patients randomized between May 2006 and August 2011, 265 patients were evaluable for this analysis (133 arm A, 132 arm B; median age, 47 years; median follow-up, 40 months). Main patient characteristics were well-balanced between both arms. Due to higher induction mortality in arm B (9 versus 1 deaths; P=0.01), CR rate was higher in the less intensive arm A (98% versus 89% after cycle 1 and 98% versus 91% after cycle 2; P= 0.003 and 0.006, respectively). A total of 213 and 205 patients were evaluated for bone marrow MRD1 and MRD2. The rates of patients reaching major MRD response and undetectable MRD were 45% (44% arm A, 46% arm B; P=0.79) and 10% (in both arms) at MRD1 and 66% (68% arm A, 63.5% arm B; P=0.56) and 25% (28% arm A, 22% arm B; P=0.33) at MRD2, respectively. The non-inferiority primary endpoint was thus demonstrated (P= 0.002). Overall, EFS was estimated at 42% (95% CI, 35-49) and OS at 51% (95% CI, 44-57) at 3 years, with no difference between arm A and B (46% versus 38% and 53% versus 49%; P=0.25 and 0.61, respectively). Of the 251 CR patients, 157 (80 arm A, 77 arm B) and 34 (17 in both arms) received allogeneic and autologous SCT in first CR, respectively. Allogeneic transplant-related mortality was similar in both arms (31.5% versus 22% at 3 years; P=0.51). Of the 157 allografted patients, 133 had MRD2 evaluation and 89 had MRD2 <0.1%. In these patients, MRD2 did not significantly influence post-transplant RFS and OS, either when tested with the 0.1% cutoff or as a continuous log covariate. Of the 34 autografted patients, 31 had MRD2 evaluation and, according to the protocol, 28 had MRD2 <0.1%. When restricting the comparison to patients achieving major MRD2 response and with the current follow-up, a trend for better results was observed after autologous as compared to allogeneic SCT (RFS, 63% versus 49.5% and OS, 69% versus 58% at 3 years; P=0.35 and P=0.08, respectively).
Conclusions: In adults, the use of TK inhibitors (TKI) has markedly improved the results of Ph+ ALL therapy, now close to those observed in Ph-negative ALL. We demonstrated here that chemotherapy intensity may be safely reduced when associated with high-dose IM. We will further explore this TKI-based strategy using nilotinib prior to SCT in our next GRAAPH-2013 trial. The trend towards a better outcome after autologous compared to allogeneic SCT observed in MRD responders validates MRD as an important early surrogate endpoint for treatment stratification and new drug investigation in this disease.
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23/04/2013 17:36
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