Micro(RNA) Management and Mismanagement of the Islet.

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State: Public
Version: Author's accepted manuscript
License: Not specified
Serval ID
serval:BIB_8AAD43279046
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Publication sub-type
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
Micro(RNA) Management and Mismanagement of the Islet.
Journal
Journal of molecular biology
Author(s)
Eliasson L., Regazzi R.
ISSN
1089-8638 (Electronic)
ISSN-L
0022-2836
Publication state
Published
Issued date
06/03/2020
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
432
Number
5
Pages
1419-1428
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ; Review
Publication Status: ppublish
Abstract
Pancreatic β-cells located within the islets of Langerhans play a central role in metabolic control. The main function of these cells is to produce and secrete insulin in response to a rise in circulating levels of glucose and other nutrients. The release of insufficient insulin to cover the organism needs results in chronic hyperglycemia and diabetes development. β-cells insure a highly specialized task and to efficiently accomplish their function they need to express a specific set of genes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs and key regulators of gene expression. Indeed, by partially pairing to specific sequences in the 3' untranslated regions of target mRNAs, each of them can control the translation of hundreds of transcripts. In this review, we focus on few key miRNAs controlling islet function and discuss: their differential expression in Type 2 diabetes (T2D), their regulation by genetic and environmental factors, and their therapeutic potential. Genetic and epigenetic changes or prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia can affect the β-cell miRNA expression profile, resulting in impaired β-cell function and survival leading to the development of T2D. Experimental approaches permitting to correct the level of misexpressed miRNAs have been shown to prevent or treat T2D in animal models, suggesting that these small RNAs may become interesting therapeutic targets. However, translation of these experimental findings to the clinics will necessitate the development of innovative strategies allowing safe and specific delivery of compounds modulating the level of the relevant miRNAs to the β-cells.
Keywords
Animals, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism, Epigenesis, Genetic, Gene Expression, Glucose/metabolism, Humans, Insulin/metabolism, Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism, Islets of Langerhans/metabolism, MicroRNAs/genetics, MicroRNAs/metabolism, RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics, Glucotoxicity, Insulin, Lipotoxicity, MicroRNA, β-cell
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Yes
Create date
21/10/2019 15:40
Last modification date
11/09/2020 6:22
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