Role of retinoic acid signaling pathway in endoderm antero-posterior patterning


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PhD thesis: a PhD thesis.
Role of retinoic acid signaling pathway in endoderm antero-posterior patterning
Bayha E.
Grapin-Botton A.
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Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Faculté de biologie et de médecine Université de Lausanne UNIL - Bugnon Rue du Bugnon 21 - bureau 4111 CH-1015 Lausanne SUISSE
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REROID:R004763412 ill.
Summary :
During vertebrate embryonic development, the endoderm gives rise to the digestive tract and associated organs such as thyroid, lung, liver and pancreas. Earlier studies have shown that extracellular signals coming from the lateral plate mesoderm pattern the endoderm along the antero-posterior axis specifying different organ primordia. An early sign of patterning is the expression of organ-specific genes in restricted endoderm domains. In this study, we focused on the role of the retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway in the regionalization of the future gut tube along the main body axis. We show that the RA-synthesizing enzyme Raldh2 is expressed in mesoderm close to the endoderm during gastrulation and during somitogenesis. During the same period, all retinoic acid receptors (RARs), which directly activate gene transcription, are expressed in endoderm suggesting that endoderm can be responsive to RA. Activation or inhibition of RA signaling was achieved by adding RA or RAR inhibitors tither on beads or in the medium to cultured chick embryos. Branchial arch (BA) endoderm markers were shifted posteriorly upon depletion of RA at gastrulation, but were not shifted after this stage. Conversely, exposure to exogenous RA repressed the most-anterior BA markers and shifted more posterior BA markers anteriorly. This suggests that graded levels of RA activity in the foregut define gene boundaries and expression levels. The posterior foregut and midget markers Pdxl and CdxA require RA for their expression, but elevated RA does not shift their expression domain along the antero-posterior axis. In addition, we investigated if RA signaling pathway interacts with other signaling pathways to pattern the endoderm. Although both RA and FGFs block anterior foregut marker expression, our experiments suggest that FGF signaling does not depend on RA in anterior endoderm. To validate our chick data in mammalians and evaluate whether RA acts directly on endoderm, we have further generated a conditional loss-of-function system in the mouse, which is still under examination.
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22/06/2010 11:15
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20/08/2019 15:42
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