Glucose transporters in the regulation of intestinal, renal, and liver glucose fluxes.

Details

Serval ID
serval:BIB_818FD025FA10
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Publication sub-type
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
Glucose transporters in the regulation of intestinal, renal, and liver glucose fluxes.
Journal
American Journal of Physiology
Author(s)
Thorens B.
ISSN
0193-1857
Publication state
Published
Issued date
1996
Volume
270
Number
4 Pt 1
Pages
G541-G553
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ; Review
Publication Status: ppublish
Abstract
Five functional mammalian facilitated hexose carriers (GLUTs) have been characterized by molecular cloning. By functional expression in heterologous systems, their specificity and affinity for different hexoses have been defined. There are three high-affinity transporters (GLUT-1, GLUT-3 and GLUT-4) and one low-affinity transporter (GLUT-2), and GLUT-5 is primarily a fructose carrier. Because their Michaelis constants (Km) are below the normal blood glucose concentration, the high-affinity transporters function at rates close to maximal velocity. Thus their level of cell surface expression greatly influences the rate of glucose uptake into the cells. In contrast, the rate of glucose uptake by GLUT-2 (Km = 17 mM) increases in parallel with the rise in blood glucose over the physiological concentration range. High-affinity transporters are found in almost every tissue, but their expression is higher in cells with high glycolytic activity. Glut-2, however, is found in tissues carrying large glucose fluxes, such as intestine, kidney, and liver. As an adaptive response to variations in metabolic conditions, the expression of these transporters is regulated by glucose and different hormones. Thus, because of their specific characteristics and regulated expression, the facilitated glucose transporters control fundamental aspects of glucose homeostasis. I review data pertaining to the structure and regulated expression of the glucose carriers present in intestine, kidney, and liver and discuss their role in the control of glucose flux into or out of these different tissues.
Keywords
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Glucose/metabolism, Humans, Intestines/metabolism, Kidney/metabolism, Liver/metabolism, Molecular Sequence Data, Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/genetics, Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/physiology
Pubmed
Web of science
Create date
24/01/2008 14:41
Last modification date
20/08/2019 15:41
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