Morphological and Functional Evaluation of Axons and their Synapses during Axon Death in Drosophila melanogaster.

Details

Serval ID
serval:BIB_8081F114B217
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Publication sub-type
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
Morphological and Functional Evaluation of Axons and their Synapses during Axon Death in Drosophila melanogaster.
Journal
Journal of visualized experiments
Author(s)
Paglione M., Rosell A.L., Chatton J.Y., Neukomm L.J.
ISSN
1940-087X (Electronic)
ISSN-L
1940-087X
Publication state
Published
Issued date
16/03/2020
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Number
157
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ; Video-Audio Media
Publication Status: epublish
Abstract
Axon degeneration is a shared feature in neurodegenerative disease and when nervous systems are challenged by mechanical or chemical forces. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying axon degeneration remains limited. Injury-induced axon degeneration serves as a simple model to study how severed axons execute their own disassembly (axon death). Over recent years, an evolutionarily conserved axon death signaling cascade has been identified from flies to mammals, which is required for the separated axon to degenerate after injury. Conversely, attenuated axon death signaling results in morphological and functional preservation of severed axons and their synapses. Here, we present three simple and recently developed protocols that allow for the observation of axonal morphology, or axonal and synaptic function of severed axons that have been cut-off from the neuronal cell body, in the fruit fly Drosophila. Morphology can be observed in the wing, where a partial injury results in axon death side-by-side of uninjured control axons within the same nerve bundle. Alternatively, axonal morphology can also be observed in the brain, where the whole nerve bundle undergoes axon death triggered by antennal ablation. Functional preservation of severed axons and their synapses can be assessed by a simple optogenetic approach coupled with a post-synaptic grooming behavior. We present examples using a highwire loss-of-function mutation and by over-expressing dnmnat, both capable of delaying axon death for weeks to months. Importantly, these protocols can be used beyond injury; they facilitate the characterization of neuronal maintenance factors, axonal transport, and axonal mitochondria.
Keywords
Animals, Axons/physiology, Drosophila melanogaster/physiology, Mutation, Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism, Neurons/physiology, Optogenetics, Signal Transduction, Synapses/physiology, Wings, Animal/anatomy & histology, Wings, Animal/physiology
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Yes
Create date
01/04/2020 18:25
Last modification date
20/01/2021 7:26
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