Arabidopsis XTH4 and XTH9 contribute to wood cell expansion and secondary wall formation


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Arabidopsis XTH4 and XTH9 contribute to wood cell expansion and secondary wall formation
Kushwah Sunita, Banasiak Alicja, Nishikubo Nobuyuki, Derba-Maceluch Marta, Majda Mateusz, Endo Satoshi, Kumar Vikash, Gomez Leonardo, Gorzsas Andras, McQueen-Mason Simon, Braam Janet, Sundberg Björn, Mellerowicz Ewa J.
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In dicotyledons, xyloglucan is the major hemicellulose of primary walls affecting the load-bearing framework with participation of XTH enzymes. We used loss- and gain-of function approaches to study functions of abundant cambial region expressed XTH4 and XTH9 in secondary growth. In secondarily thickened hypocotyls, these enzymes had positive effects on vessel element expansion and fiber intrusive growth. In addition, they stimulated secondary wall thickening, but reduced secondary xylem production. Cell wall analyses of inflorescence stems revealed changes in lignin, cellulose, and matrix sugar composition, indicating overall increase in secondary versus primary walls in the mutants, indicative of higher xylem production compared to wild type (since secondary walls were thinner). Intriguingly, the number of secondary cell wall layers was increased in xth9 and reduced in xth4, whereas the double mutant xth4x9 displayed intermediate number of layers. These changes correlated with certain Raman signals from the walls, indicating changes in lignin and cellulose. Secondary walls were affected also in the interfascicular fibers where neither XTH4 nor XTH9 were expressed, indicating that these effects were indirect. Transcripts involved in secondary wall biosynthesis and in cell wall integrity sensing, including THE1 and WAK2, were highly induced in the mutants, indicating that deficiency in XTH4 and XTH9 triggers cell wall integrity signaling, which, we propose, stimulates the xylem cell production and modulates secondary wall thickening. Prominent effects of XTH4 and XTH9 on secondary xylem support the hypothesis that altered xyloglucan can affect wood properties both directly and via cell wall integrity sensing.
Create date
10/06/2023 21:47
Last modification date
11/06/2023 6:04
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