Intravenous streptomycin dosing regimen in a patient undergoing hemodialysis: Plasma level monitoring and pharmacokinetic simulation


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Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Intravenous streptomycin dosing regimen in a patient undergoing hemodialysis: Plasma level monitoring and pharmacokinetic simulation
Title of the conference
11th Conference of the European Association for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Chtioui H., Zbinden D., Manuel O., Entenza J., Decosterd L.A., Buclin T.
Geneva, Switzerland, August 28-31, 2013
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Clinical Therapeutics
Introduction: Streptomycin, as other aminoglycosides, exhibits concentration-dependent bacterial killing but has a narrow therapeutic window. It is primarily eliminated unchanged by the kidneys. Data and dosing information to achieve a safe regimen in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are scarce. Although main adverse reactions are related to prolonged, elevated serum concentrations, literature recommendation is to administer streptomycin after each HD.
Patients (or Materials) and Methods: We report the case of a patient with end-stage renal failure, undergoing HD, who was successfully treated with streptomycin for gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia with prosthetic arteriovenous fistula infection.
Streptomycin was administered intravenously 7.5 mg/kg, 3 hours before each dialysis (3 times a week) during 6 weeks in combination with amoxicillin. Streptomycin plasma levels were monitored with repeated blood sampling before, after, and between HD sessions. A 2-compartment model was used to reconstruct the concentration time profile over days on and off HD.
Results: Streptomycin trough plasma-concentration was 2.8 mg/L. It peaked to 21.4 mg/L 30 minutes after intravenous administration, decreased to 18.2 mg/L immediately before HD, and dropped to 4.5 mg/L at the end of a 4-hour HD session. Plasma level increased again to 5.7 mg/L 2 hours after the end of HD and was 2.8 mg/L 48 hours later, before the next administration and HD. The pharmacokinetics of streptomycin was best described with a 2-compartment model.
The computer simulation fitted fairly well to the observed concentrations during or between HD sessions. Redistribution between the 2 compartments after the end of HD reproduced the rebound of plasma concentrations after HD. No significant toxicity was observed during treatment. The outcome of the infection was favorable, and no sign of relapse was observed after a follow-up of 3 months.
Conclusion: Streptomycin administration of 7.5 mg/kg 3 hours before HD sessions in a patient with end-stage renal failure resulted
in an effective and safe dosing regimen. Monitoring plasma levels
along with pharmacokinetic simulation document the suitability of
this dosing scheme, which should replace current dosage recommendations
for streptomycin in HD.
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17/02/2014 13:41
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20/08/2019 14:29
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