Polymorphisms of the " macrophage migration inhibitory factor " gene in infectious diseases


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PhD thesis: a PhD thesis.
Polymorphisms of the " macrophage migration inhibitory factor " gene in infectious diseases
Renner P.
Calandra T.
Roger T.
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Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
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REROID:R004543219 ill.
The proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has emerged as a central mediator of inflammation and innate immune defense against infections. MIF has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases like sepsis, tuberculosis and autoimmune inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. Two functional polymorphisms of the MIF gene promoter, a five to eight CATT repeat microsatellite at position -794 and a G/C SNP at position -173, have been associated with increased susceptibility to or severity of autoimmune inflammatory diseases like arthritis, colitis and atopy. The aim of this thesis was to define whether, and if so by which mechanisms, MIF gene polymorphisms influence the susceptibility to or the outcome of one of the most severe and one of the most prevalent infectious diseases: meningococcal sepsis and tuberculosis, respectively.
The results of the comparison between 1106 patients suffering from severe meningococcal infections and 434 healthy volunteers showed that carriers of the CATT5-5 genotype were protected from meningococcemia. A transmission disequilibrium test involving 106 families confirmed this association. At baseline and after stimulation with Neisseria meningitidis, the CATT5 MIF promoter drove lower transcriptional activity than the CATT6 or CATT7 alleles in human monocytic cells and whole blood of CATT5-5 healthy individuals tended to produce less MIF than whole blood of CATT6-6 individuals. Beyond, we describe several new MIF gene polymorphisms in Africans. Genotyping the CATT microsatellite and the -173*G/C SNP revealed great genetic diversity in six African ethnic groups. Comparing 471 African tuberculosis cases and 932 matched healthy controls, we observed ethnicity dependent associations of the -173*G/C and the CATT5-8 with susceptibility to or severity of tuberculosis, but confirmation in larger cohorts ìs needed.
In conclusion, we report that homozygous carriage of a low expression allele of the MIF gene protects from meningococcal disease. These results support the concept that analyses of MIF genotypes in patients with sepsis may help to classify patients into risk categories and to identify those patients who may benefit from anti-MIF therapeutic strategies.
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24/06/2010 11:54
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20/08/2019 15:25
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