Ocular and systemic bio-distribution of rhodamine-conjugated liposomes loaded with VIP injected into the vitreous of Lewis rats.


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Ocular and systemic bio-distribution of rhodamine-conjugated liposomes loaded with VIP injected into the vitreous of Lewis rats.
Molecular Vision
Camelo S., Lajavardi L., Bochot A., Goldenberg B., Naud M.C., Fattal E., Behar-Cohen F., de Kozak Y.
1090-0535 (Electronic)
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Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tPublication Status: epublish
PURPOSE: Local delivery of therapeutic molecules encapsulated within liposomes is a promising method to treat ocular inflammation. The purpose of the present study was to define the biodistribution of rhodamine-conjugated liposomes loaded with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), an immunosuppressive neuropeptide, following their intravitreal (IVT) injection in normal rats.
METHODS: Healthy seven- to eight-week-old Lewis male rats were injected into the vitreous with empty rhodamine-conjugated liposomes (Rh-Lip) or with VIP-loaded Rh-Lip (VIP-Rh-Lip; 50 mM of lipids with an encapsulation efficiency of 3.0+/-0.4 mmol VIP/mol lipids). Twenty-four h after IVT injection, the eyes, the cervical, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes (LN), and spleen were collected. The phenotype and distribution of cells internalizing Rh-Lip and VIP-Rh-Lip were studied. Determination of VIP expression in ocular tissues and lymphoid organs and interactions with T cells in cervical LN was performed on whole mounted tissues and frozen tissue sections by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy.
RESULTS: In the eye, 24 h following IVT injection, fluorescent liposomes (Rh-Lip and VIP-Rh-Lip) were detected mainly in the posterior segment of the eye (vitreous, inner layer of the retina) and to a lesser extent at the level of the iris root and ciliary body. Liposomes were internalized by activated retinal Müller glial cells, ocular tissue resident macrophages, and rare infiltrating activated macrophages. In addition, fluorescent liposomes were found in the episclera and conjunctiva where free VIP expression was also detected. In lymphoid organs, Rh-Lip and VIP-Rh-Lip were distributed almost exclusively in the cervical lymph nodes (LN) with only a few Rh-Lip-positive cells detected in the spleen and mesenteric LN and none in the inguinal LN. In the cervical LN, Rh-Lip were internalized by resident ED3-positive macrophages adjacent to CD4 and CD8-positive T lymphocytes. Some of these T lymphocytes in close contact with macrophages containing VIP-Rh-Lip expressed VIP.
CONCLUSIONS: Liposomes are specifically internalized by retinal Müller glial cells and resident macrophages in the eye. A limited passage of fluorescent liposomes from the vitreous to the spleen via the conventional outflow pathway and the venous circulation was detected. The majority of fluorescent liposomes deposited in the conjunctiva following IVT injection reached the subcapsular sinus of the cervical LN via conjuntival lymphatics. In the cervical LN, Rh-Lip were internalized by resident subcapsular sinus macrophages adjacent to T lymphocytes. Detection of VIP in both macrophages and T cells in cervical LN suggests that IVT injection of VIP-Rh-Lip may increase ocular immune privilege by modulating the loco-regional immune environment. In conclusion, our observations suggest that IVT injection of VIP-loaded liposomes is a promising therapeutic strategy to dampen ocular inflammation by modulating macrophage and T cell activation mainly in the loco-regional immune system.
Animals, Ciliary Body/cytology, Ciliary Body/drug effects, Conjunctiva/cytology, Conjunctiva/drug effects, Endocytosis/drug effects, Injections, Iris/cytology, Iris/drug effects, Liposomes, Lymph Nodes/cytology, Lymph Nodes/drug effects, Lymphoid Tissue/cytology, Lymphoid Tissue/drug effects, Male, Phagocytes/drug effects, Phagocytes/metabolism, Phenotype, Rats, Rats, Inbred Lew, Rhodamines/administration & dosage, Rhodamines/pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution/drug effects, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide/administration & dosage, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide/pharmacokinetics, Vitreous Body/cytology, Vitreous Body/drug effects
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26/08/2013 16:09
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