Innate immune response to poxvirus vectors


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PhD thesis: a PhD thesis.
Innate immune response to poxvirus vectors
Delaloye J.
Calandra T.
Roger T.
Institution details
Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
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REROID:R005361532 ill.
Summary :
A large body of evidence indicates that the innate immune system plays a key role in host response to viral infection. Recently, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), and NOD-like receptor receptors (NLRs) have emerged as key innate immune sensors of microbial products, eliciting intracellular signaling and leading to the production of chemokines, cytokines and interferons (IFNs) that shape innate immune responses and coordinate the development of adaptive immunity.
Poxviruses are currently developed as vaccines vectors for infectious diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and New York vaccinia virus (NWAC) are attenuated, replication deficient strains of poxvirus. The mechanisms underlying innate immune responses to MVA and NYVAC are poorly characterized. Thus, the objectives of the project were to determine the innate immune profile stimulated by poxviruses in innate immune cells and to evaluate the impact of modifications in the viral genome on MVA and NYVAC immunogenicity.
MVA stimulated the production of abundant amounts of chemokines and IFNß but low levels of cytokines by human macrophages. In contrast, NYVAC weakly stimulated the production of all mediators. Interestingly, MVA and NYVAC strongly stimulated innate immune responses in vivo and in human whole blood, suggesting that a soluble factors}, possibly a complement component, was required for optimal activation of innate immune cells by poxviruses. Modified MVA and NYVAC produced by single or multiple deletions of viral genes targeting crucial pathways of host innate immunity, and mutant poxviruses with limited replication capacity, increased the production of pro-inflammatory molecules by human whole blood. Gene expression profiling in human macrophages confirmed the increased immunologic stimulatory capacity of modified poxviruses.
The pathways activated by MVA and NYVAC in innate immune cells were described by analysing the response of knockdown or shRNA transduced macrophages with impaired expression of TLRs and their adaptors (MyD8$ and TRIF), RLRs (RIG-I, MDA-5 and the adaptor IPS-1) and the NALP3 inflammasome composed óf the NLR NALP3, caspase-1 and ASC. These experiments revealed a critical role for TLR2-TLR6-MyD88 in the production of tFNß-independent chemokines and of MDA-5-IPS-1 in the production of IFNß and IFNßdependent chemokines. The transcription of the iL1b gene encoding for the IL-1ß cytokine was initiated through TLR2-MyD88, whereas the maturation and the secretion of IL-1ß were controlled by the NALP3 inflammasome.
Finally, we analyzed the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a mediator of inflammation and innate immune responses, in MVA infection. We observed that MVA infection increased MIF production by innate immune cells and that MIF deficiency impaired macrophage and dendritic cell responses (ie migration, maturation, cytokine and IFN production) to MVA infection in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, MIF-deficiency resulted in delayed anti-MVA specific antibody production in mice immunized with the virus.
In conclusion, we demonstrate. that poxviruses can be modified genetically to improve their immunogenicity. We also report the first comprehensive analysis of poxvirus sensing by innate immune cells, showing that the TLR, RLR and NLR pathways play specific and coordinated roles in regulating cytokine, chemokine and IFN response to poxvirus infection. Finally, we show that MIF is an integral host component involved in innate and adaptive immune responses to MVA infection. The present findings provide important information relevant to the study of the pathogenesis of poxvirus infections and allow a better understanding of the immunogenic potential of vaccine vectors, which is required for the development of optimized modìfied pox-vaccine vectors.
Create date
15/06/2010 10:38
Last modification date
20/08/2019 15:19
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