Short-term effects of smoking cessation and smoking decrease on glycated hemoglobin among patients with type 2 diabetes


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A Master's thesis.
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Master (thesis) (master)
Short-term effects of smoking cessation and smoking decrease on glycated hemoglobin among patients with type 2 diabetes
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Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
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Few studies have assessed the short-term impact of smoking cessation or reduction on HbA1c among patients with diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- term effect of a smoking cessation intervention among a smoking population with T2DM.
In this open-label, Swiss monocentric and randomized controlled trial, participants were recruited in ambulatory care from 2018 to 2020. The intervention consisted in four individual behavioral counselling sessions over 3 months conducted by trained research nurses, using motivational interviews. The control group had one short counselling session at baseline. Both groups had a follow-up visit at 12 and 26 weeks. The first outcome was to evaluate change in HbA1c at 12 and 26 weeks in patients who quit/decreased smoking compared to patients who continued to smoke, independently of the study arm. The second outcomes were changes in waist circumference (WC) and body-mass index (BMI) from baseline to 12 and 26 weeks, according to smoking status.
48 participants were randomized in the intervention (n=23) and control (n=25) groups, 19 women (39.6%) and 29 men (60.4%), the mean age was 61.8 years (SD=9.84)). Follow-up rate was 77% (n=32) at 3 months and 63% (n=25) at 6 months. All participants had T2DM, with a mean duration of 11.9 years (SD=9.04), the mean BMI was 29.0 kg/m2 (SD=4.6) and mean HbA1c 7.0% (SD=1.09). The mean cigarettes consumption per day was 21.2 cig/d.
At the 12 weeks follow-up, 7 participants (21.9%) decreased their tobacco consumption of 50% or more (dim≥50% group), and 25 (78.1%) did not change their consumption or increased it (dim<50% group). At 26 weeks, 4 participants (16.0%) were in dim≥50% group, and 21 (84.0%) in dim<50% group. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups at 12 and 26 weeks regarding the change in HbA1c, WC and BMI. We could not perform analyses according to smoking cessation due to the low number of smokers who quit during the study period.
In this study, interrupted prematurely due to the COVID-19 pandemic and low recruitment, we found no significant difference in HbA1c, WC and BMI, between smokers who decreased smoking and those who did not change their consumption or increased it at 12 and 26 weeks. The analyses were limited due to the small sample and few numbers of smokers who quit.
diabetes, smoking cessation, glycated hemoglobin, waist circumference, BMI
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07/09/2022 14:47
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27/09/2023 6:59
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