Tic disorders in children and adolescents: does the clinical presentation differ in males and females? A report by the EMTICS group.

Details

Serval ID
serval:BIB_5313BAFF1023
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
Tic disorders in children and adolescents: does the clinical presentation differ in males and females? A report by the EMTICS group.
Journal
European child & adolescent psychiatry
Author(s)
Garcia-Delgar B., Servera M., Coffey B.J., Lázaro L., Openneer T., Benaroya-Milshtein N., Steinberg T., Hoekstra P.J., Dietrich A., Morer A.
Working group(s)
EMTICS collaborative group
Contributor(s)
Apter A., Baglioni V., Ball J., Benaroya-Milshtein N., Bognar E., Burger B., Buse J., Cardona F., Vela M.C., Debes N.M., Dietrich A., Ferro M.C., Fremer C., Garcia-Delgar B., Gulisano M., Hagen A., Hagstrøm J., Hedderly T.J., Heyman I., Hoekstra P.J., Huyser C., Madruga-Garrido M., Marotta A., Martino D., Mir P., Morer A., Müller N., Müller-Vahl K., Münchau A., Nagy P., Neri V., Openneer TJC, Pellico A., Plessen K.J., Porcelli C., Rizzo R., Roessner V., Ruhrman D., Schnell JML, Silvestri P.R., Skov L., Steinberg T., Gloor F.T., Tarnok Z., Walitza S., Weidinger E.
ISSN
1435-165X (Electronic)
ISSN-L
1018-8827
Publication state
Published
Issued date
04/05/2021
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article
Publication Status: aheadofprint
Abstract
Tic disorders have a strong male predominance, with a male-to-female ratio of 4:1 in Tourette syndrome (TS) and 2:1 in persistent tic disorders. In other neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the disparity in sex distribution has been partially related to differences in symptom presentation between males and females. In tic disorders, however, little research has been conducted on this topic, probably due to the limited access to large samples with a significant proportion of females. The aim of this study was to describe sex differences in the clinical presentation of tic disorders in children and adolescents in one of the largest pediatric samples with TS/persistent tic disorders (n = 709, 23.3% females) recruited as part of the European Multicenter Tics in Children Study (EMTICS). Validated measures assessed the severity of tics and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Using mixed-effect models, we found that sex had a significant influence on the severity of tics, ADHD symptoms, ASD symptoms, and emotional problems. Males had more severe symptoms than females, except for emotional problems. We also observed a statistically significant interaction between sex and age on the severity of tics and compulsions, with females showing higher symptom severity with increasing age than males. These findings indicate that the clinical presentation of TS/persistent tic disorders varies with sex. Males seem to exhibit a more noticeable pattern of clinical symptoms at a younger age that may contribute to their earlier detection in comparison to females.
Keywords
Adolescents, Children, Sex differences, Tourette syndrome
Pubmed
Web of science
Create date
20/07/2021 7:33
Last modification date
21/07/2021 5:40
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