Assessment of myocardial edema and area-at-risk in acute myocardial infarction by CMR: Evaluation of a novel T2-mapping method


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A Master's thesis.
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Master (thesis) (master)
Assessment of myocardial edema and area-at-risk in acute myocardial infarction by CMR: Evaluation of a novel T2-mapping method
Bongard C.
Schwitter J.
Van Heeswijk R.
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Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
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Objectives. The goal of this study is to evaluate a T2-mapping sequence by: (i) measuring the reproducibility intra- and inter-observer variability in healthy volunteers in two separate scanning session with a T2 reference phantom; (2) measuring the mean T2 relaxation times by T2-mapping in infarcted myocardium in patients with subacute MI and compare it with patient's the gold standard X-ray coronary angiography and healthy volunteers results.
Background. Myocardial edema is a consequence of an inflammation of the tissue, as seen in myocardial infarct (MI). It can be visualized by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging using the T2 relaxation time. T2-mapping is a quantitative methodology that has the potential to address the limitation of the conventional T2-weighted (T2W) imaging.
Methods. The T2-mapping protocol used for all MRI scans consisted in a radial gradient echo acquisition with a lung-liver navigator for free-breathing acquisition and affine image registration. Mid-basal short axis slices were acquired.T2-maps analyses: 2 observers semi- automatically segmented the left ventricle in 6 segments accordingly to the AHA standards. 8 healthy volunteers (age: 27 ± 4 years; 62.5% male) were scanned in 2 separate sessions. 17 patients (age : 61.9 ± 13.9 years; 82.4% male) with subacute STEMI (70.6%) and NSTEMI underwent a T2-mapping scanning session.
Results. In healthy volunteers, the mean inter- and intra-observer variability over the entire short axis slice (segment 1 to 6) was 0.1 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.4 to 0.5, p = 0.62) and 0.2 ms (95% CI: -2.8 to 3.2, p = 0.94, respectively. T2 relaxation time measurements with and without the correction of the phantom yielded an average difference of 3.0 ± 1.1 % and 3.1 ± 2.1 % (p = 0.828), respectively. In patients, the inter-observer variability in the entire short axis slice (S1-S6), was 0.3 ms (95% CI: -1.8 to 2.4, p = 0.85). Edema location as determined through the T2-mapping and the coronary artery occlusion as determined on X-ray coronary angiography correlated in 78.6%, but only in 60% in apical infarcts. All except one of the maximal T2 values in infarct patients were greater than the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for normal myocardium.
Conclusions. The T2-mapping methodology is accurate in detecting infarcted, i.e. edematous tissue in patients with subacute infarcts. This study further demonstrated that this T2-mapping technique is reproducible and robust enough to be used on a segmental basis for edema detection without the need of a phantom to yield a T2 correction factor. This new quantitative T2-mapping technique is promising and is likely to allow for serial follow-up studies in patients to improve our knowledge on infarct pathophysiology, on infarct healing, and for the assessment of novel treatment strategies for acute infarctions.
longitudinal studies, myocardial infarct, T2-mapping, cardiovascular MRI.
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12/09/2013 14:11
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20/08/2019 13:57
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