Analyse des épisodes de bactériémies chez les patients nécessitant une prise en charge aux soins intensifs


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A Master's thesis.
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Master (thesis) (master)
Analyse des épisodes de bactériémies chez les patients nécessitant une prise en charge aux soins intensifs
Oppliger E.
Eggimann P.
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Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
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Introduction :
Bacteremia are among the leading forms of severe infections requiring ICU management, and have been reported to be associated with important morbidity and mortality. Bloodstream infection (BSI) can be classified as hospital-acquired (HA), healthcare-associated (HCA) and community-acquired (CA). Each type has its own characteristics and outcome.
Methods :
We analyzed all consecutive episodes of bacteremia occurring in patients hospitalized in our mixed 32-bed ICU over a 12 month period (01.10.2009-30.09.2010). HA BSI were prospectively included in a multicenter study (EUROBACT). We adapted the case report form to analyze retrospectively all other cases of BSI. Chi-square tests were used for the categorical variables and ANOVA tests for the continuous variables.
Results :
Bacteremia occurred in 103 patients (120 bacteria) for an incidence-density of 49.3 episodes/1000 admissions. Among HA episodes, about one quarter of episodes was related to vascular accesses, including two thirds acquired outside of the ICU. Concerning HCA BSI, two-thirds originated from the urinary tract. In contrast, a respiratory origin was found in one third of CA episodes. Multiresistant microorganisms were more frequent in HA and HCA BSI. The overall mortality was 32%, as compared to 7.9% and 13.6% for the overall ICU and hospital mortality of other ICU patients over the same period, respectively. In a multivariate model, age (1.06 [1.02-1.11]), septic shock (3.11 [1.16-8.33]) and renal remplacement (7.81 [1.50, 14.93]) were significantly associated with a fatal outcome.
Conclusion :
Two-thirds of bacteremia documented among ICU patients were nosocomial and in contrast to those community-acquired, Gram-negatives represented the majority of them. However, CA bacteremia were associated with a higher rate of septic shock and death. The microbiological characteristics of HCA episodes were more similar to those HA, that is why it is important to individualize this category in order to adapt the antibiotics.
bloodstream infection, intensive care unit, community-acquired, healthcare-associated, nosocomial
Create date
12/09/2013 9:39
Last modification date
20/08/2019 14:33
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