Evolutionary and developmental dynamics of sex-biased gene expression in common frogs with proto-Y chromosomes.

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Version: Final published version
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Serval ID
serval:BIB_3979DBC2E6AC
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Collection
Publications
Title
Evolutionary and developmental dynamics of sex-biased gene expression in common frogs with proto-Y chromosomes.
Journal
Genome biology
Author(s)
Ma W.J., Veltsos P., Sermier R., Parker D.J., Perrin N.
ISSN
1474-760X (Electronic)
ISSN-L
1474-7596
Publication state
Published
Issued date
05/10/2018
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
19
Number
1
Pages
156
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Publication Status: epublish
Abstract
The patterns of gene expression on highly differentiated sex chromosomes differ drastically from those on autosomes, due to sex-specific patterns of selection and inheritance. As a result, X chromosomes are often enriched in female-biased genes (feminization) and Z chromosomes in male-biased genes (masculinization). However, it is not known how quickly sexualization of gene expression and transcriptional degeneration evolve after sex-chromosome formation. Furthermore, little is known about how sex-biased gene expression varies throughout development.
We sample a population of common frogs (Rana temporaria) with limited sex-chromosome differentiation (proto-sex chromosome), leaky genetic sex determination evidenced by the occurrence of XX males, and delayed gonadal development, meaning that XY individuals may first develop ovaries before switching to testes. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing, we investigate the dynamics of gene expression throughout development, spanning from early embryo to froglet stages. Our results show that sex-biased expression affects different genes at different developmental stages and increases during development, reaching highest levels in XX female froglets. Additionally, sex-biased gene expression depends on phenotypic, rather than genotypic sex, with similar expression in XX and XY males; correlates with gene evolutionary rates; and is not localized to the proto-sex chromosome nor near the candidate sex-determining gene Dmrt1.
The proto-sex chromosome of common frogs does not show evidence of sexualization of gene expression, nor evidence for a faster rate of evolution. This challenges the notion that sexually antagonistic genes play a central role in the initial stages of sex-chromosome evolution.
Keywords
Animals, Evolution, Molecular, Female, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Genome, Genotype, Male, Phenotype, Rana temporaria/genetics, Rana temporaria/growth & development, Sex Characteristics, Transcriptome/genetics, Y Chromosome/genetics, Development, Evolutionary rate, Faster-X effect, Gene expression, Proto-sex chromosome, Sex bias, Sex reversals, Sexualization, Sexually antagonistic genes, Transcriptional degeneration
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Yes
Create date
11/10/2018 10:52
Last modification date
17/01/2020 7:18
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