In Vivo Modulation of Mitochondrial Activity Determines HSC Engraftment and Post-Transplant Survival in Mice


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Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Abstract (Abstract): shot summary in a article that contain essentials elements presented during a scientific conference, lecture or from a poster.
In Vivo Modulation of Mitochondrial Activity Determines HSC Engraftment and Post-Transplant Survival in Mice
Title of the conference
ASH 2012, 54th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology
Vannini N., Naveiras O.M., Campos V., Pirinen E., Houtkooper R., Girotra M., Roch A., Auwerx J., Lutolf M.
Atlanta, Georgia, United-States, December 8-11, 2012
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Issued date
Abstract 213
Document Type: Meeting Abstract
Cellular metabolism is emerging as a potential fate determinant in cancer and stem cell biology, constituting a crucial regulator of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool [1-4]. The extremely low oxygen tension in the HSC microenvironment of the adult bone marrow forces HSCs into a low metabolic profile that is thought to enable their maintenance by protecting them from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although HSC quiescence has for long been associated with low mitochondrial activity, as testified by the low rhodamine stain that marks primitive HSCs, we hypothesized that mitochondrial activation could be an HSC fate determinant in its own right. We thus set to investigate the implications of pharmacologically modulating mitochondrial activity during bone marrow transplantation, and have found that forcing mitochondrial activation in the post-transplant period dramatically increases survival.
Specifically, we examined the mitochondrial content and activation profile of each murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor compartment. Long-term-HSCs (LT-HSC, Lin-cKit+Sca1+ (LKS) CD150+CD34-), short-term-HSCs (ST-HSC, LKS+150+34+), multipotent progenitors (MPPs, LKS+150-) and committed progenitors (PROG, Lin-cKit+Sca1-) display distinct mitochondrial profiles, with both mitochondrial content and activity increasing with differentiation. Indeed, we found that overall function of the hematopoietic progenitor and stem cell compartment can be resolved by mitochondrial activity alone, as illustrated by the fact that low mitochondrial activity LKS cells (TMRM low) can provide efficient long-term engraftment, while high mitochondrial activity LKS cells (TMRM high) cannot engraft in lethally irradiated mice. Moreover, low mitochondrial activity can equally predict efficiency of engraftment within the LT-HSC and ST-HSC compartments, opening the field to a novel method of discriminating a population of transitioning ST-HSCs that retain long-term engraftment capacity. Based on previous experience that a high-fat bone marrow microenvironment depletes short-term hematopoietic progenitors while conserving their long-term counterparts [5], we set to measure HSC mitochondrial activation in high-fat diet fed mice, known to decrease metabolic rate on a per cell basis through excess insulin/IGF-1 production. Congruently, we found lower mitochondrial activation as assessed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR analysis as well as a depletion of the short-term progenitor compartment in high fat versus control chow diet fed mice. We then tested the effects of a mitochondrial activator known to counteract the negative effects of high fat diet. We first analyzed the in vitro effect on HSC cell cycle kinetics, where no significant change in proliferation or division time was found. However, HSCs responded to the mitochondrial activator by increasing asynchrony, a behavior that is thought to directly correlate with asymmetric division [6]. As opposed to high-fat diet fed mice, mice fed with the mitochondrial activator showed an increase in ST-HSCs, while all the other hematopoietic compartments were comparable to mice fed on control diet. Given the dependency on short-term progenitors to rapidly reconstitute hematopoiesis following bone marrow transplantation, we tested the effect of pharmacological mitochondrial activation on the recovery of mice transplanted with a limiting HSC dose. Survival 3 weeks post-transplant was 80% in the treated group compared to 0% in the control group, as predicted by faster recovery of platelet and neutrophil counts.
In conclusion, we have found that mitochondrial activation regulates the long-term to short-term HSC transition, unraveling mitochondrial modulation as a valuable drug target for post-transplant therapy. Identification of molecular pathways accountable for the metabolically mediated fate switch is currently ongoing.
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24/04/2013 8:39
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