Regulatory T cell defects are associated with autoimmunity in Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein deficient mice


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PhD thesis: a PhD thesis.
Regulatory T cell defects are associated with autoimmunity in Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein deficient mice
Maillard M.
Michetti P.
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Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Faculté de biologie et de médecine Université de Lausanne UNIL - Bugnon Rue du Bugnon 21 - bureau 4111 CH-1015 Lausanne SUISSE
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REROID:R005032903 ill.
Abstract :
The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked recessive human primary immunodeficiency. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the hermatopoietic specific regulator of the actin cytoskeleton Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP). Importantly, a majority of affected patients develop autoimmunity including an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-like disease. WASP deficient mice share many similarities with the human WAS. One of these similarities is the spontaneous development of colitis.
I have focused my dissertation studies on the pathogenesis of colitis in WASP deficient mice. Prior work from our laboratory had shown that lymphocytes were required and that CD4+ T cells sufficient for colitis development. This colitis was associated with a predominant Th2-cytokine skewing. I have contributed in exploring whether the Th2 cytokine IL-4 plays a role in disease maintenance. Using two approaches to neutralize IL-4, we found that this cytokine plays a role in disease maintenance. Natural CD4*CD25*Foxp3* regulatory T cells (nTreg cells) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune disorders. We found that WASP deficient mice have reduced nTreg cell numbers in peripheral lymphoid organs. This was associated with functional defects in suppressing T cell proliferation and preventing colitis induced by transfer of naïve T cells into SCID recipient, which lack lymphocytes. WASP deficiency affected homing of nTreg cells to lymphoid compartments, IL-2-mediated activation and secretion of the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10. Finally, we could prevent colitis onset via adoptive transfer of WT nTreg cells prior to colitis development. This suggests that nTreg cells dysfunction is one of the mechanisms underlying colitis development in WASP deficient mice.
Future directions will aim at deciphering the role of other immune cell types, the
bacterial flora, and various cytokines in colitis development in this murine model of colitis. In addition, we believe that colitis in WASP deficient mice could serve as a useful tool to evaluate nTreg cells manipulation as novel therapeutic approach for IBD.
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24/06/2010 8:53
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20/08/2019 14:17
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