The Synthetic Cannabinoids Phenomenon.

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State: Public
Version: Final published version
License: Not specified
Serval ID
serval:BIB_2B339A34E923
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Collection
Publications
Title
The Synthetic Cannabinoids Phenomenon.
Journal
Current pharmaceutical design
Author(s)
Karila Laurent, Benyamina Amine, Blecha Lisa, Cottencin Olivier, Billieux Joël
ISSN
1873-4286 (Electronic)
ISSN-L
1381-6128
Publication state
Published
Issued date
2016
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
22
Number
42
Pages
6420-6425
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Review
Publication Status: ppublish
Abstract
« Spice » is generally used to describe the diverse types of herbal blends that encompass synthetic cannabinoids on the market. The emergence of smokable herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids, which mimic the effects of cannabis, appears to become increasingly popular, in the new psychoactive substances landscape. In 2014, the existence of 134 different types of synthetic cannabinoids were reported by the European Union Early Warning System. These drugs are mainly sold online as an alternative to controlled and regulated psychoactive substances. They appear to have a life cycle of about 1-2 years before being replaced by a next wave of products. Legislation controlling these designer drugs has been introduced in many countries with the objective to limit the spread of existing drugs and control potential new analogs. The majority of the synthetic cannabinoids are full agonists at the CB1 receptor and do not contain tobacco or cannabis. They are becoming increasingly popular in adolescents, students and clubbers as an abused substance. Relatively high incidence of adverse effects associated with synthetic cannabinoids use has been documented in the literature. Numerous fatalities linked with their use and abuse have been reported. In this paper, we will review the available data regarding the use and effects of synthetic cannabinoids in humans in order to highlight their impact on public health. To reach this objective, a literature search was performed on two representative databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar), the Erowid Center website (a US non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals), and various governmental websites. The terms used for the database search were: "synthetic cannabinoids", "spice", "new psychoactive substances", and/or "substance use disorder", and/or "adverse effects", and/or "fatalities". The search was limited to years 2005 to 2016 due to emerging scientific literature at this period Health professionals should take into account that limited scientific evidence is available regarding the effect of synthetic cannabinoids use in humans. It thus urges to launch more systematic epidemiological studies, to develop and validate screening procedures, and to investigate the neurobiological and psychological correlates and risk factors associated to synthetic cannabinoids use and misuse.
Keywords
Animals, Cannabinoids/adverse effects, Cannabinoids/chemical synthesis, Cannabinoids/chemistry, Designer Drugs/adverse effects, Designer Drugs/chemical synthesis, Designer Drugs/chemistry, Humans, Marijuana Abuse/complications, Marijuana Abuse/epidemiology, Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/agonists, Synthetic cannabinoids, adverse effects, fatalities, new psychoactive substances, spice, substance use disorder
Pubmed
Web of science
Create date
10/01/2020 9:31
Last modification date
17/01/2020 22:49
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