Chapter 11: Emerging approaches in the analysis of inks on questioned documents


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Chapter 11: Emerging approaches in the analysis of inks on questioned documents
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In: Francese S. (eds) Emerging Technologies for the Analysis of Forensic Traces. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications
Weyermann Céline, Techabowornkiat Korn-usa
Springer, Cham
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Questioned document is one of the oldest fields of examination reported in forensic science. Documents are used as physical (nowadays sometimes virtual) traces of human transactions, thus questioning, falsification and counterfeiting certainly have existed since their invention and routine use. This is also the case for biblical texts and art pieces for which authenticity and authorship are often disputed. While mainly handwriting comparison was reported in early works, the composition and characteristics of inks on paper were often briefly discussed (see for example the early works of Demelle or Raveneau in the XVIIe century ). Since then, many technological developments have impacted questioned document examination, both with regard to the ink and paper production, as well as to the writing instruments or printing techniques. Nowadays, further progress have changed the world of (questioned) documents, through the introduction of virtual documents using electronic signatures and security documents such as passports using mixed physical and digital biometric data. Thus, the document examiner' expertise has to quickly evolve and adapt to such developments, sometimes necessitating the combination of skills from different disciplines not always co-existing in forensic laboratories (such as chemistry, physics, statistics, engineering, material science, computer science). After a brief overview of the historical development in both ink formulation and analysis, this chapter will investigate the relevance of rapidly evolving technologies for application to the examination of questioned documents in a forensic perspective.
Forensic Science, Questioned documents, Ink analysis
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23/09/2019 19:22
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18/08/2020 7:08
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