Evaluation of exposure biomarkers in offshore workers exposed to low benzene and toluene concentrations

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Serval ID
serval:BIB_22D2E21B0D6B
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
Evaluation of exposure biomarkers in offshore workers exposed to low benzene and toluene concentrations
Journal
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Author(s)
Hopf Nancy B., Kirkeleit Jorunn, Bråtveit Magne, Succop Paul, Talaska Glenn, Moen Bente E.
ISSN
1432-1246 (Electronic)
ISSN-L
0340-0131
Publication state
Published
Issued date
04/2012
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
85
Number
3
Pages
261-271
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Publication Status: ppublish
Abstract
Characterize ethylbenzene and xylene air concentrations, and explore the biological exposure markers (urinary t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA) and unmetabolized toluene) among petroleum workers offshore. Offshore workers have increased health risks due to simultaneous exposures to several hydrocarbons present in crude oil. We discuss the pooled benzene exposure results from our previous and current studies and possible co-exposure interactions.
BTEX air concentrations were measured during three consecutive 12-h work shifts among 10 tank workers, 15 process operators, and 18 controls. Biological samples were collected pre-shift on the first day of study and post-shift on the third day of the study.
The geometric mean exposure over the three work shifts were 0.02 ppm benzene, 0.05 ppm toluene, 0.03 ppm ethylbenzene, and 0.06 ppm xylene. Benzene in air was significantly correlated with unmetabolized benzene in blood (r = 0.69, p < 0.001) and urine (r = 0.64, p < 0.001), but not with urinary t,t-MA (r = 0.27, p = 0.20). Toluene in air was highly correlated with the internal dose of toluene in both blood (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) and urine (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). Co-exposures were present; however, an interaction of metabolism was not likely at these low benzene and toluene exposures.
Urinary benzene, but not t,t-MA, was a reliable biomarker for benzene at low exposure levels. Urinary toluene was a useful biomarker for toluene exposure. Xylene and ethylbenzene air levels were low. Dermal exposure assessment needs to be performed in future studies among these workers.

Keywords
Adult, Air/analysis, Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis, Benzene/analysis, Benzene Derivatives/analysis, Biomarkers/analysis, Chemical Industry, Environmental Monitoring, Extraction and Processing Industry, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Occupational Diseases/metabolism, Occupational Exposure/analysis, Petroleum, Solvents/analysis, Sorbic Acid/analogs & derivatives, Sorbic Acid/analysis, Toluene/analysis, Xylenes/analysis
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Yes
Create date
24/08/2011 16:20
Last modification date
01/10/2019 6:17
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