Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration.

Details

Serval ID
serval:BIB_1F94A5543802
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Publication sub-type
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration.
Journal
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Author(s)
Jéquier E., Constant F.
ISSN
1476-5640 (Electronic)
ISSN-L
0954-3007
Publication state
Published
Issued date
2010
Volume
64
Number
2
Pages
115-123
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Review
Abstract
How much water we really need depends on water functions and the mechanisms of daily water balance regulation. The aim of this review is to describe the physiology of water balance and consequently to highlight the new recommendations with regard to water requirements. Water has numerous roles in the human body. It acts as a building material; as a solvent, reaction medium and reactant; as a carrier for nutrients and waste products; in thermoregulation; and as a lubricant and shock absorber. The regulation of water balance is very precise, as a loss of 1% of body water is usually compensated within 24 h. Both water intake and water losses are controlled to reach water balance. Minute changes in plasma osmolarity are the main factors that trigger these homeostatic mechanisms. Healthy adults regulate water balance with precision, but young infants and elderly people are at greater risk of dehydration. Dehydration can affect consciousness and can induce speech incoherence, extremity weakness, hypotonia of ocular globes, orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia. Human water requirements are not based on a minimal intake because it might lead to a water deficit due to numerous factors that modify water needs (climate, physical activity, diet and so on). Water needs are based on experimentally derived intake levels that are expected to meet the nutritional adequacy of a healthy population. The regulation of water balance is essential for the maintenance of health and life. On an average, a sedentary adult should drink 1.5 l of water per day, as water is the only liquid nutrient that is really essential for body hydration.
Keywords
Adult, Aged, Body Water/physiology, Dehydration/complications, Dehydration/prevention & control, Drinking, Humans, Infant, Nutritional Requirements, Osmolar Concentration, Water/administration & dosage, Water/physiology, Water-Electrolyte Balance
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Yes
Create date
22/03/2011 12:28
Last modification date
20/08/2019 12:55
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